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A&P ch 22 lymphatic

QuestionAnswer
what is the lymphatic system it consists of lymph, interstitial(tissue) fluid, lymphatics, lymph nodes, isolated nodules of lymphatic tissue, tonsils, thymus & spleen
what is IF Interstitial
what are lymph it is clear, watery fluid found in lymphatic vessels
What is interstitial fluid it is a complex and organized material that fills spaces between cells
what is ECF extracellular fluid
what makes up ECF interstitial fluid & blood
lymph and IF are similar to what Blood plasma
plasma contains__concentration of proteins higher
what is the different btwn lymph in thoracic duct and most IF lymph in thoracic duct twice high protein conc. as most IF
what direction does lymph go in the body goes in one direction way
lymphatic vessels begin as what in tissues spaces blind-end capillaries
what are the two lymphatic ducts thoracic duct & right lymphatic duct
where does thoracic duct drain into left subclavian vein
where does right lymphatic duct drains into right subclavian vein
what are lacteals lymphatics orginating in intestinal villi
lacteal contain what after a fatty meal which has milky lymph called chlye
what are the lymphatic vessels thinner walled than veins, has more valves lymph nodes are located at intervals
what are the functions o lymphatic vessels drain interstitial fluid transport dietary lipids, facilitate immune response
how does lymphatic vessels drain interstitial fluid they return water & protein from IF to blood
How does lymphatic vessels transport dietary lipida lacteals absorb fats & other nutrient
how fast does lymph in lymphatic vessels avg @ 125 ml/hr
what are the mechanisms that contribute to the effectiveness of lymphatic pump breathing movement, skeletal muscle contractions, arterial pulsations,contraction of lymphatic walls
what are lymph nodes lymphatic tissue, separated into compartments by fibrous partitions
what are afferent lymphatics they enter each node
what are efferent lymphatics they leave each node
what are lymph usually located in clusters
what do lymph nodes do filter out injurious substances & phagocytose, site of formation of lymphocytes & monocytes
where is the thymus located in mediastinum extends into the lower neck
the size of the thymus relatively largest in comparison to body size @ about 2yrs of age; absolutely largest @ puberty, after which it gradually atrophies; almost disapears by advanced age
what are the function of the thymus forms lymphocytes before birth produces and distributes T-cells involved in cell-mediated immunity
where is the spleen located in the left hypchondriac
what is the structure of the spleen similiar to lymph nodes; ovoid in shape; size varies;contains numerous venous blood spaces that serve as blood reservoir
what is the function of the spleen defense-protection by phagocytosis by reticuloendothelial cells and antibody formation by some lymphocytes
what are the different types of tonsils pharyngeal(adenoid), palatine, lingual
where are they located, Pharyngeal,palatine, lingual pharyngeal-posterior wall of nasopharynx palatine-tonsillar fossa btwn arches lingual-base of tongue
what are the function of tonsils produces lymphocytes and antibodies; act on foreign substances that are inhaled or ingested
what is resistance ability to ward off disease
what is susceptibility vulnerability or lack of resistance
what is nonspecific resistance inherited, provides general response against wide variety of organisms
what is specific resistance(immunity) production of specific antibody to fight specific pathogens; developed
what are the mechanical factors skin, mucus membranes,lacrimal apparatus saliva, flow of urine
what does skin do wards off entrance of # of pathogens
what does mucus membranes do traps microbes & foreign substances, may aided by hairs(nose) cilia
what does lacrimal apparatus washing action of tears helps keep microbes from settling on eyes
what does saliva do washes microbes from teeth
what does the flow of urine do keeps microbes from expanding in urinary tract
what are the chemical factors sebum,sudoriferous glands, & gastric juice
what does sebum forms protective layer over surface of skin; an unsaturated fatty acid in sebum inhibits growth of some pathogenic bacteria & fungi
what does sudoriferous glands do produce perspiration which helps wash microorganisms from surface of skin; also contains lysozyme which breaks down cell walls of some bacteria
what does gastric juices do has high acidity which destroys bacteria in stomach
what are the types of phagocytes Granulocytes(neutrophils), macrophages
what are macrophages enlarged monocytes which leave bloodstream-some may wander while other remain in certain tissue & are fixed
phagocytosis work by what chemotaxis, Adherence, ingestion, digestion
what is chemotaxis phagocytes are attracted to microorganisms by chemicals
what is adherence attachment of cell membrane of phagocyte to surface of microorganism; may involve opsonization to enhance attachment of phagocyte
what is opsonization coating of microorganism with plasma proteins complement
what is ingestion involves pseudopod extension by phagocyte forming phagocytic vesicle
what is digestion fusion of phagocytic vesicles with lysosome; enzymes of lysosome destroy microorganisms
what are natural killer cells population of lymphocytes with ability to kill wide variety of microbes plus some tumor cells;found in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow & blood
what is inflammation localized response of cells damaged by microbes, physical agents, or chemical agents
what are the 4 cardinal symptoms of inflammation redness, pain, heat & swelling; fifth can be loss of function injured area
immunity is ?? specific disease resistance
what is an antigen any chemical substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the body to produce specific antibodies or specific cells(T-cells), which can react with the antigen
what is immunogenicity ability to stimulate formation of specific antibodies (provoke an immune response)
what is reactivity ability of antigen to react with produced antibodies or cells
what are characteristics of Antigens form of protein or large polysaccharide;entire or part of microbe may b be antigenic;may contain antigenic determinant sites on it surface;determinant site that has reactivity but not immunogenicity is called a partial antigen or hapten
what are ABS antibodies
what are antibodies protein produced by body in response to presence of antigen & capable of combining specifically with the antigen
antibodies belong to what groups of protein immunoglobulins, they are 5 classes(MADGE)
What are the structure of antibodies Two heavy(H) chains-consits of more than 400 amino acid, Two light (L) chains-consists of 200 amino acid
What are the two regions of antibodies variable portion-contains antigen binding site; constant portion-which is the same for all members of a class
What is cellular(cell-mediated)immunity effective against fungi, parasites, intracellular viral infections, cancer cells & foreign tissue transplants
cellular immunity are Helper T cells ,cytotoxic (killer) T cells, suppressor T cells Memory T cells
what are Helper T cells developed from CD4 + cells; aid in antibody production & secrete interleukin-2 which stimulates production of cytotoxic T cells
what are cytotoxic(killer) T cells develop from CD8+cells; leave lymphoid tissue & travel to invading cell & destroy it; several chemicals released
what are suppressor T cells shut down some activities of immune system after several weeks
what are Memory T cells recognize the original invading antigen, initiate swifter reaction on 2nd exposure..<long Lived>
what is Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity effective against bacterial & viral infections
Created by: toluwani