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Golden, Ex1, Blood

Exam 1, Blood, A&P-2 Bastyr

What are the Functions of Blood? 1) Delivers Nutrients, and Removes Cellular Waste Products 2) Delivers Hormones 3) Defends Against Disease 4) Regulates Tissue pH 5) Maintains Tissue Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
What are the Cells types in Blood: - Red Blood Cells - White Blood Cell - Platelets (Cell Fragments)
Describe the Fluid of Blood Plasma? : - 92% Water - 7% Proteins - 1% Electrolytes, Nutrients
Shape of a RBC? Biconcave Disks without Nuclei
How does the shape of a RBC help it achieve its function? -Small size and biconcave shape give large surface area. - RBS is over 97% hemoglobin - Lack mitochondria and ATP, therefore do not use the energy they store. - An RBC contains about 250 million hemoglobin molecules. - 1 RBC = 1 billion molecules of
Describe Hemoglobin: The 4 polypeptide chains of the protein “globin” is bound to the red ring like ‘Heme” group. The Heme group binds to a atom of Iron, giving the red color.
Where are RBC’s produced? Produced In Bone Marrow FromHemocytoblasts (figure 17-5)
How is RBC cell production regulated? Red Cell Production Regulated By Erythropoietin in an Homeostatic control mechanism. Fig. (17-6)
Describe the Homeostatic Control Mechanism of RBC’s 1)low blood O2 sensed in Kidney 2)Kidney, (with liver) release erythropoietin) 3)Ertyhropoietin stimulates Red bone marrow. 4)Enhanced erythropoiesis increases RBC count. 5)O2 carrying ability of blood increases *)blood is continually sensed by Kidn
How are damaged RBC’s remeoved from the body? Damaged RBCs Are Removed in Liver and Spleen and destroyed by macrophages (figure 17-7) Iron and Amino acids are recycled. Part of the heme group is converted to bilirubin by the liver and secreted into the small intestine for excretion.
Define Ertyhropoietin: hormone released by the kidney to stimulate RBC production in Red Bone Marrow.
Describe Hematocrit. Screening test for RBC levels in blood indicating The level of Blood plasma to RBC’s. Hematocrit = (Volume Red Blood Cells/ Total Blood Volume) * 100
AB type blood has what RBC antigens, and may have what plasma antibodies? AB antigens, no antibodies
A type blood has what RBC antigens, and may have what plasma antibodies? A antigens, Anti-B antibodies
B type blood has what RBC antigens, and may have what plasma antibodies? B antigens, Anti-A
O type blood has what RBC antigens, and may have what plasma antibodies? no antigens, Both Anti-A and Anti-B antigens.
If type A blood comes into contact with Anti A antigens, what happens? The anti A Antibodies (agglutinins) will Agglutinate to the type A antigens (Agglutinogens) disrupting the flow of blood. Therefore Type B blood with Anti A antibodies cannot accept Type A blood.
If type B blood comes into contact with Anti B antigens, what happens? The anti B Antibodies (agglutinins) will Agglutinate to the B antigens (Agglutinogens) disrupting the flow of blood. Therefore Type A blood with Anti B antibodies cannot accept Type B blood.
Why is Type AB blood the Universal receptor? It does not have Antibodies, therefore it will accept all blood cells.
If type O blood comes into contact with Anti A antigens, what happens? Type O blood already has both Anti A and Anti B antibodies and nothing will happen.
Why is Type O blood the Universal donor? It does not have either Type A or Type Antigens. Therefore the antibodies of the new host will not fight Type O blood.
What is Rh factor and why is it important? Another type of antigen on the blood cell. If the acceptor is receiving Rh+ blood for the first time, it has not produced Rh+ antigens yet. If the Acceptor receives Rh+ blood for the second time, it will destroy the offending blood.
Where do antibodies come from? Antibodies are Proteins Secreted By Lymphocytes in Response to Foreign Antigens. Antibodies are not always present in the blood.
What are common Red Blood Cell Disorders? Anemia and Polycythemia
Describe Anemia: Anemia is Decreased Oxygen Carrying Capacity Due To a Decrease In Red Blood Cell Number or amount of hemoglobin
What are common types of Anemia? 1. Hemorrhagic (Blood Loss) 2. Pernicious (Nutritional) 3. Aplastic (Decreased Production) 4. Hemolytic (Increased Destruction) 5. Sickle Cell (Abnormal Hemoglobin)
What is Polycythemia? Polycythemia is Abnormally High RBC#
What is the General Function of WBC’s? Defense
What are common Leukocyte Abnormalities? 1. Leukocytosis: Abnormally High White Blood Cell Count 2. Leukopenia: Abnormally Low White Blood Cell Count 3. Leukemia: Cancer Characterized By Uncontrolled Production Of Specific Leukocytes
Describe Platelets: Cell Fragments Derived From Megakaryocytes In Bone Marrow
Function of Platelets: Essential In Blood Clotting
Define Hemostasis: Hemostasis or haemostasis is a complex process which causes the bleeding process to stop. It refers to the process of keeping blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage).
What are the three stages of hemostasis: 1) Vascular Spasm 2) Platelet Plug Formation 3) Coagulation
Describe Vascular Spasm: Smooth muscle contracts causing vasoconstriction. This immediately limits blood loss. If blood is still flowing, Platelet Plug formation begins.
What are the three steps in Platelet Plug Formation: 1) Adhesion: 2) Release: 3) Aggregation:
Describe Step 1) Adhesion, in the platelet Plug formation: Adhesion: Injury to the lining of vessel exposes collagen fibers; platelets strongly adhere to collagen fibers.
Describe Step 2) Release, in the platelet Plug formation: Release: As platelets adhere they release chemicals stimulating more formation: ADP, Prostaglandins And Serotonin
Describe Step 3) Aggregation, in the platelet Plug formation: Aggregation. As a large group of platelets form, they release more chemical signals, accumulating more platelets. This is a positive feedback loop. If the platelet Plug is not enough to stop bleeding, the third step, collagulation, happens
Describe Coagulation (blood clotting): -Fibrin protein threads form a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets, forming a clot. - Involves a Cascade of Enzyme/Coenzyme Activations - Involves Positive Feedback Mechanisms - Requires `Activated' Platelets
Describe Activated Platelets: Activation turns clotting factors into enzymes.
What are the Three Phases of blood clotting: Phase 1) Two pathways to prothrombin Activator Phase 2) Common Pathway to Thrombin Phase 3) Common Pathway to Fibrin Mesh
Describe Phase 1 of Blood Clotting: Initiating of clotting by Intrinsic or Extrinsic Pathway, Leads to form Prothrombin Activator.
Describe Intrinsic Mechanism to initiate clotting: - Triggered by negatively charged surfaces, such as activated platelets, collagen or glass. - Called intrinsic because the factors needed form clotting are present within (intrinsic to) the blood - Slower because it has many intermediate steps
Describe Extrinsic Mechanism to initiate clotting: - Triggered by exposing blood to "Tissue Factor" found in tissues underneath the damaged endothelium. - Extrinsic, tissue factor is outside the blood - Faster, bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway.
Which mechanism for initiating clotting is faster? Extrinsic
What doe Tissue Factor activate? Extrinsic mechanism to initiate clotting.
What is the relationship between the Extrinsic Mechanism and Intrinsic Mechanism? Mechanisms Overlap; Physiologically Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Initiates the Intrinsic Mechanism
Describe Phase 2 of Blood Clotting: Simply, Prothrombin activator catalizes the transformation of the plasma protein prothrombin to the active enzyme thrombin.
Describe Phase 3 of Blood Clotting: Thrombin catalyzes the transformation of the “soluble” clotting factor, fibrinogen into fibrin. Fibrin molecules polymerize together to form long, hairlike, “insoluble” strands. The fibrin strands glue the platelets together and make the web of a clot.
Describe the final reaction involved in clot formation: (in Phase 3,) Thrombin activates factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor) that binds the fibrin strands tightly together, forming a fibrin mesh and further strengthens and stabilizes the clot.
Describe Clot Retraction and Repair: Platelets contain contractile proteins, actin and myosin, and they contract, pulling the surrounding fibrin strands, squeezing serum from the mass. This compacts the clot and draws the edges of the vessel together.
Describe the function of anticoagulants: Prevention of Coagulation 1) Heparin, Natural anticolagulant contained in basophil and mast cell granules along with the surface of endothelial cells. 2) Aspirin, common drug for pain and inflammation.
Define Fibronolysis: Fibronolysis is removal of a clot when healing has occured.
Describe the function of factors that promote fibrinolysis: The critical natural clot buster is a fibrin-digesting enzyme called Plasmin. Plasminogen is built into clot. When Plasminogen is activated, it becomes Plasmin, and begins to remove the clot. (The clot is formed with its own destruction proteins.)
What are Coagulation Disorders: Thrombocytopenia: Abnormal Bleeding Due To Low Platelet Count Hemophilia: Increased Bleeding Due To Absence of Proteins Involved In Clotting Mechanisms
What stem cell is responsible for all blood cells? Hemocytoblast.
Created by: Bastyr40