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Chapter 14

Lymphatic System & Immunity

QuestionAnswer
The fluid found in lymph vessels is called ________. plasma.
Water found in the spaces between cells is called ________. tissue fluid.
Tissue fluid is made from ________ by the process of ________. plasma, filtration.
Blood plasma becomes tissue by the process of ________. filtration.
Tissue fluid that has entered lymph capillaries is called ________. lymph.
Water in the body has several names: in capillaries it is ________; in between cells it is________; and in lymph it is________. plasma, tissue fluid,lymph.
The thoracic duct empties lymph into the ________ vein. left subclavian.
The vessel that empties lymph into the left subclavian vein is the ________. thoracic duct.
The right lymphatic duct empties lymph into the ________ vein. right subclavian.
The vessel that empties lymph into the right subclavian vein is the ________ duct. right lymphatic.
The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the ________ body. lower.
Lymph from the lower body is collected by the large vessel called the ________. cisterna chyli.
Lymph from the lower half and upper left quadrant of the body drains into the _________. thoracic duct.
Lymph from the upper right quadrant of the body drains into the _________. right lymphatic duct.
Back flow of lymph in the larger lymph vessels is prevented by ________. valves.
Lymph is kept moving in larger lymph vessels by ________ of the smooth muscles in their walls. contraction
In the larger lymph vessels in the legs, lymph is kept moving by the _________ pump. skeletal muscle.
In the larger lymph vessels in the thoracic cavity, lymph is kept moving by the ________ pump. respiratory.
Lymphatic tissue is the sight of ________ of lymphocytes. activation.
Lymphocytes are activated within the ________,________,_________. lymphatic tissue, spleen, lymphnodes.
Lymph nodes are located along ________. lymph vessels.
What flows through lymphatic vessels? lymph.
Lymph nodes and nodules contain macrophages to ________. phagocytize pathogens.
Lymph nodes and nodules contain plasma cells that produce ________. antibodies.
The _______ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the arms. axillary.
The _________ lymph nodes destroy pathoges in the lymph returning from the legs. inguinal.
The ________ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the head. cervical.
Where are the cervical lymph nodes located? the neck.
Lymph nodes and nodules are located beneath the ________of body tracts lined with ________. epithelium, mucous membranes.
Lymph nodules ________ pathogens. destroys.
Lymph nodules destroy pathogens that enter the body through________ openings. natural.
In the abdomen, the spleen is on the _______ side behind the _______. left, stomach
The cells inside the spleen that help phagocytize pathogens are _________. macrophages.
The cells that produce antibodies are ________. plasma cells.
In the adult spleen, it's function is very similar to a ________. lymph node.
If the adult spleen needs to be removed, what two organs will compensate for its functions? liver, lymph nodes.
What are two blood cells that are destroyed by the spleen? RBC's, platelets.
What is formed when the spleen destroys old RBC's? bilirubin.
Bilirubin is formed in the heme portion of the ________. hemoglobin.
The bilirubin that is formed circulates to the ________. liver.
Bilirubin circulates to the liver to be ________. excreted.
The fetal spleen has a function that ceases after ________. birth.
After birth the spleen no longer produces ____. RBC's.
In the fetus of a young child, the organ that is most important for the deveopment of the immune system is the ________. thymus gland.
Lymphocytes produced by the thymus are calles ________. T-cells.
In a young child, the thymus is located below the ________. Thyroid gland.
In a young child, the thymus is located below the thyroid gland and behind the _______. sternum.
When a person reaches adulthood, the thymus gland ______ in size. decreases.
Antigens that are found on the cells of an individual are called ________antigens. self.
Foreign antigens will stimulate the production of ________. antibodies
Viruses and bacteria are ________ antigens. foreign.
The component of immunity that is specific as to antigen is ________ immunity. adaptive.
The component of immunity that is not specific as to antigen is ________ immunity. innate.
The component of immunity that creates immunity is ________ immunity. adaptive.
The component of immunity that does not create memory is ________ immunity. innate.
Adaptive immunity may become more ________ with repeated exposure. efficient.
Innate immunity does not become more _______ with repeated immunity. efficient.
In innate immunity, the body's outermost defense is an unbroken ________. epidermis.
In innate immunity, ________ are antimicrobail chemicals. defensins.
In innate immunity, defensions are antemicrobail chemicals produced by cell of the ________. epidermis.
In innate immunity, _______ cells of the epidermis pick up pathogens. mobile.
In innate immunity, mobile cells of the epidermis that pick up pathogens are ________cells. langerhans.
In innate immunity, the second line of defense that contains WBC's is the _________ tissue. subceutaneous.
In innate immunity, the antibacterial chemical in tears, and saliva is ________. lysozyme.
Ingested pathogens are usually destroyed by ___. HCI.
Ingested pathogens are usually destroyed by HCI in the ________. stomach.
The respiratory mucosa is lined with ________ epithelium. ciliated.
The respiratory mucosa is lined with ciliated epithelium to sweep inhaled ________ out. pathogens.
The cells of innate immunity that activate the lymphocytes of adaptive immunity are the ________ and ________ cells. macrophages, langerhans.
The cells in innate immunity that are the most important phagocytes are the _______ and the ________. macrophages, neutrophils
In innate immunity, the nonspecific lymphocytes that use perforins to destroy foreign cells are the ___________ cells. natural killer.
The cells of innate immunity that produce histamine and leukotriens are the ________ and the ________ cells. basophils, mast.
In innate immunity, basophils and mast cells produce ________ and ________. histamine, leukotrienes.
In innate immunity, the effect of histamine on arterioles is to cause ________. vasodilation.
In innate immunity, the chemical that inhibits the reproduction of viruses within cells is _______. interferon.
In innate immunity, interferon inhibits the _________ of viruses. reproduction.
In innate immuty, the function of interferon is to prevent the ________ of viruses within the cell. reproduction.
In innate immunity, the chemical that lyses cellular antigens or labels non-cellular antigens is ________. complement.
In innate immunity, the purpose of inflammation is to destroy _________. pathogens.
In innate immunity, the purpose of inflammation is to destroy pathogens and permit ________. tissue repair.
In innate immunity, the signs of inflammation are ________,________, and________. pain,swelling, heat.
In innate immunity, pain, swelling, and heat are signs of ________. inflammation.
In innate immunity, what is the function of neutrophils? phagocytosis.
In innate immunity, the function of basophils is to produce ________. histamine.
In innate immunity, histamine is produced by ________. basophils.
Inflammation is the body's response to ________ of any kind. damage.
In innate immunity, ________ is the body's response to damage of any kind. inflammation.
In adaptive immuity, the cells the work together are the ________ and the _________. macrophages, helper T cells.
In adaptive immunity, macrophages and helper T cells work ________. together.
In adaptive immunity, macrophages and helper T cells work together to _____________. recognize foreign antigens.
In adaptive immunity, ________ and ________ recognize foreign antigens. macrophages, helper T cells.
In adaptive immunity, macrophages that have self antigens to be used for comparison to foreign antigens are the __________. macrophages.
In adaptive immunity, the mechanism that does not involve antibody production is ________ immunity. cell mediated.
In adaptive immunity, cell mediated immuity does not involve ________ production. antibody.
In adaptive immunity, the labeling of a foreign antigen by antibodies is called ________. opsoniztion.
In adaptive immunity, the labeling of foreign antigen by antibodies os called opsonization, and results in ______________. phagocytosis of the antigen.
In adaptive immunity, the _________ T cells chemically destroy foreign antigens. cytotoxic.
In adaptive immunity, the cytotoxic T cells chemically destroy _____________. foreign antigens.
In adaptive immunity, cytotoxic T cells use ________ to destroy foreign antigens. chemicals.
In adaptive immunity, the _______ T cells remember a specific foreign antigen. memory.
In adaptive immunity, the memory T cells remember specigic ____________. foreign antigens.
In adaptive immunity, the ________ T cells contribute to the recognition of an antigen as foreign. helper
In adaptive immunity, helper T cells contribute to the ________ of an antigen as foreign. recognition.
In adaptive immunity, the _______T cells activate B cells. helper.
In adaptive immunity, B cells are activated by ________ T cells. helper.
In adaptive immunity, T cells are involvled in all aspects of the mechanism called _________ immunity. cell-mediated.
In the embryo, T cells are produced in the __________ and the __________. red bone marrow, thymus
In the embryo, red bone marrow and the thymus produce ___ cells. T
In the embryo, B cells are produced in the _________. red bone marrow.
In the embryo, red bone marrow produces ___ cells. B.
In adaptive immunity, the B cells that produce antibodies are called ________ cells. plasma.
In adaptive immunity, plasma cells produce ________. antibodies.
In adaptive immunity, plasma cells differenciate from ____ cells. B.
In adaptive immunity, plasma cells differenciate from B cells and produce _________. antibodies.
In adaptive immunity, the ________ B cells remember a specific foreign antigen. memory.
In adaptive immunity, the process for complement fixation is activated by an _______. antibody complex; antigen.
In adaptive immunity, complement fixation destroys ________ antigens. cellular.
In adaptive immunity, complement fixation destroys cellular antigens by _________ them. rupturing.
In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation destroys __________ antigens. non-cellular.
In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation destroys non-cellular antigens by attracting _________ for phagocytosis. macrophages.
In adaptive immunity, when antiabodies bond to ________ they may cause clumping. bacteria.
When antibodies bond to bacteria and cause clumping this is called _______. agglutination.
An antibody molecule is made of ________. protein.
An antibody molecule is made of protein and shaped like a __. Y.
In adaptive immunity, when antibodies bond to viruses, they change the ________ of the virus. shape.
In adpative immunity, when antibodies bond to viruses , they change the shape of the viruses, which is called ________. neutralization.
In adaptive immunity, the bonding of antibodies to a bacterial toxin ________ the toxin because it has changed shape. inactivates.
In adaptive immunity, a virus with antibodies is likely to be _________ by a macrophage. phagocytized.
During the _______ exposure to a pathogen antibodies are produced at a slow rate of speed, and in small amounts. first.
After the first exposure to a pathogen, the person is left with ________ ane __________. antibodies, memory cells.
After the first exposure to a pathogen, the person is left with antibodies, and memory cells that are _______ for the virus. specific.
The first exposure to a pathogen often results in _________. disease.
The first exposure to a pathogen often results in disease because ________ are produced to ________. antibodies, slowly.
During the second exposure to a pathogen ________ are produced. antibodies.
During the second exposure to a pathogen, antibodies are produced at a ________ rate of speed and in _______ amounts. rapid, large.
A vaccine may contain a _________. killed pathogen.
A vaccine may contain a killed pathogen or a part of a pathogen as an ________. antigen.
A vaccine stimulates production of _______ and _________. antibodies, memory cells.
Why does a vaccine work? Because it takes the place of the first exposure to the pathogen.
Virus diseases of plants _______ affect people. do not.
People have ________ immunity to virus diseases of plants. genetic.
Recovery from a disease provides ________ aquired _________ immunity. naturally, active.
A vaccine such as that for measles provides_________ acquired immunity. artificially.
Placental transmission of maternal antibodied to a fetus provides _______ acquired ________ immunity. naturally, passive.
An injection of gamma globulins provides ________ acquired __________ immunity. artificially, passive.
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person ________ from disease. recovers.
Artificially acquired active immunity occurs when a person recieves a ________. vaccine.
An example of passive immunity that is artificially acquired is what? an injection of gamma globulins.
An example of passive immunity that is naturally acquired is what? breast milk.
In any form of passive immunity, the antibodies have come from ___________. someone else.
In any form of active immunity, the antibodies have come from where? the persons own plasma cells.
A tetnus booster is an example of ________ immunity. active.
An injection of tetnus immune globulin is an example of _________ immunity. passive.
Created by: laceychapman