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Spicer, Ex1 Review

Review questions for Exam 1 Pathology, spicer, bastyr

What is the difference between a symptom, a sign, and a syndrome? A symptom is a subjective trait of disease. A sign is an objective trait of disease. A syndrome is a disease that is known by specific and repetitive signs and symptoms.
What would an example of a structural pathological disorder be? Trauma, knife cut.
What would an example of a functional pathological disorder be? Constipation due to lack of hydration.
What is the difference between apoptosis and necrosis? Apoptosis is normal programmed cell death. EX, the endothelial lining of the small intestine. Necrosis is death due to pathologies. Ex: trauma or cell death due to hypoxia.
Can apoptosis or necrosis be both normal and pathologic? Apoptosis. If a cell is having an autoimmune disease and dying early due to apoptosis.
What are common sources of cell injury? (see p25) Hypoxia, Physical trauma Ionizing radiation Toxic molecular injury Microbes Inflammatory and immune reactions Nutritional imbalance Genetic defects Aging
Why would a cell be forced to atrophy? (see p28) - Reduced functional demand - Inadequate blood supply - Absent or reduced neural or hormonal support - Chronic inflammation
Why would a cell be forced to hypertrophy? - Hormonal stimulation Increased functional demand
Why would a cell be pushed into metaplasia? - Due to chronic inflammation, a cell may mature in to a type of cell that better handles the new environment. Ex: Columnar epithelium to Stratified squamous epithelium due to smoking.
Which cell adaptations are reversible? Atrophy, hypertrophy, Dysplasia, Metaplasia, hyperplasia.
Which cell adaptions are not reversible? Apoptosis and Necrosis are not reversible.
What is the purpose of inflammation? Eliminate the extent and severity of an injury, eliminate or neutralize the offending agent and initiate the repair process
When is inflammation a good thing? When it helps cope with a normal injury.
When is inflammation a bad thing? When it overreacts, anaphylactic shock due to overreaction of a bee sting.
What are the main cell types which participate in acute inflammation? NEUTROPHILS! Platelets, mast cells
What are the main cell types which participate in chronic inflammation? Macrtophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells
What are the 5 cardinal (classic) signs of inflammation, and what is occurring at the tissue level to cause them? - Reddness is due to vasodilation, - Pain, local nerves are acted upon by chemical signals - Heat: Increased blood supply - Swelling due to edema - Loss of function, due to swelling and pain.
What are the cellular responses in acute inflammation? Neutrophils are involved in phagocytosis and degranulation, sending chemical signals. Mast cells (monocytes) release histamine and heparin causing the signs of inflammation.
What are the vascular responses in acute inflammation? Vascularization and increasing leakiness. Release of WBC’s plasma, platelets and “plasma protein components to the site”. Through Angionegenesis capillaries will move closer to the site of injury. (more often seen in Chronic inflammation)
What are the possible outcomes of acute inflammation? -Resolution - Scarring - Abcesses - Chronic Inflammation
What are the possible outcomes of chronic inflammation? - Resolution to Scarring - Or persistent chronic inflammation
What’s the difference between regeneration, and healing? Regeneration is complete restoration of structure and function, healing is partial repair of structure and function with scarring.
What are the steps in fibrous repair (production of scar tissue)? 1) Fibrocyte migration and proliferation: providing raw material 2) Angioneogenesis: Growth of capilaries to nourish the process 3) Scar development:synthesis of ECM proteins and deposition of collagen followed by contraction, reshaping and strengthenin
What are 6 host factors that could interfere with wound healing? 1) Infection 2) Poor nutrition 3) Steroid drugs 4) Poor blood supply 5) Foreign bodies 6) Mechanical factors
Define Repair: Repair is the bodies attempt to restore normal structure and function. This is accomplished in two ways, Regeneration and Healing.
Created by: Bastyr40