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Urinary, acid-base balance,endocrine

4 organs of the urinary system kidneys ureters urinary bladder urethra
location of kidneys (4 descriptions) retroperitoneal superior lumbar region against posterior wall of abdominal cavity on both sides of the vertebral column
encasing of kidneys adipose capsule
function of renal capsule provides cushioning to maintain integrity of delicate vascular system
inner area where urine forms cortex and medulla
how is medulla arranged medullary pyramids
function of minor and major calyces funnels for urine collection
location of hilum concave, medial side of kidney
function of hilum (2) exiting of ureters renal artery and vein entrance/exit
kidneys account for what percentage of cardiac output 25%
how many liters of blood filtered daily 200 liters
what does blood filtering allow toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions to leave the body in urine
kidney functions (6) removal of nitrogenous waste products from blood controls rate of RBC production regulates BP regulates calcium absorption regulates volume and composition of body fluids maintains proper acid/base, water/salt balance
how do kidneys control rate of RBC production secretion of erythropoietin
how do kidneys regulate BP production of renin
how do kidneys regulate calcium absorption activation of vitamin D
nephron functional unit of kidney
components of nephron (2) renal corpuscle renal tubule
renal corpuscle blood filtering unit
renal tubule linear system of tubes that modify filtered blood (urine)
types of nephrons (2) cortical nephrons juxtamedullary nephrons
cortical nephron renal corpuscle near surface of kidney and relatively short loop of Henle
juxtamedullary nephron renal corpuscles deep in cortex and loop of Henle extend deep into medulla
importance of juxtamedullary nephrons regulate water balance
blood supply to nephron (4) afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent arteriole interlobular vein
afferent arteriole brings blood to renal corpuscle
glomerulus anastomosing capillary system
site of filtration glomerulus
glomerulus has what kind of capillaries and why fenestrated for maximum permeability
glomerulus is surrounded by what? podocytes
podocytes (2) control size of pore slits prevent large items from exiting blood
efferent arteriole (4) slightly smaller than afferent increased pressure forces more materials out of glomerulus drains blood after filtration increases filtration rate
branches of efferent arteriole peritubular capillaries vasa recta
peritubular capillaries (2) supply renal tubules with blood receive materials reabsorbed by tubules
vasa recta (2) parallel loops of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons important for urine concentration mechanism
interlobular vein drains blood from nephron
glomerular filtration substances in blood leak out into Bowman's capsule
what kind of pressure drives filtration hydrostatic
criteria for filtration size
what can filter out of blood (3) nutrients wastes small proteins
glomerulonephritis antigen-antibody complexes and inflammation cause increase permeability of glomerular capillaries
effect of glomerulonephritis cells, proteins leak into urine
function of net filtration pressure (NFP) forces material out of blood into Bowman's space
what is NFP equal to glomerular hydrostatic pressure - glomerular osmotic pressure - capsular hydrostatic pressure
what is glomerular filtration rate (GFR) dependent on constriction/dilation of afferent arteriole
how is GFR determined filtration pressure
obstruction of urine path increase and decreases what increases capsular hydrostatic pressure decreases GFR
tubular reabsorption substances in the filtrate that the body wishes to conserve are actively transported into the peritubular capillaries
what happens to most filtrate volume it is reabsorbed
where does majority of tubular reabsorption occur and why proximal convoluted tubules because the epithelia has microvilli to increase surface area
concept of renal threshold active transport of reabsorption has limited capacity
if amount of substance in filtrate is greater than transport capacity... substance is present in urine
sodium and water retention (3) sodium ions actively reabsorbed negative ions follow sodium by passive transport water follows by osmosis
where do sodium and water retention occur proximal convoluted and distal convoluted tubules
why is reabsorption rate of some mineral hormonally controlled to maintain homeostasis
what does PTH control calcium reabsorption
what % of filtered urea is reabsorbed 40
creatinine (2) not reabsorbed used to measure glomerular function
tubular secretion some substances are actively transported from peritubular capillary into renal tube
what is tubular secretion used for quick removal of substances from body
juxtaglomerular apparatus mechanism that coordinates BP and sodium reabsorption
composition of juxtaglomerular apparatus (2) macula densa of DCT smooth muscle sphincter that wraps around afferent arteriole
macula densa has chemoreceptors that monitor sodium in filtrate
juxtaglomerular cells has mechanoreceptors that monitor BP in afferent arteriole
what do juxtaglomerular cells secrete when BP is too low renin
what does renin do activates angiotensin I in the blood
what is angiotensin I transformed to in the lungs angiotensin II
what does angiotensin II stimulate release of aldosterone from adrenal gland
what does aldosterone do increases sodium reabsorption from kidney filtrate which therefore increases blood pressure
what concentrates urine to greatest degree juxtamedullary nephrons
what maintains an increasing sodium gradient deep in the medulla permeability properties of ascending and descending loops of Henle plus counter current mechanism of the vaso recta
what does the water permeability of the loop of Henle cause excess amounts of water to leave kidney via osmosis
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released by posterior pituitary in response to decreased concentration of water in bloodstream
what does ADH cause collecting ducts to be more permeable to water so water moves out of the ducts in the medulla via osmosis which concentrates urine more
urea (3) primary waste product in urine nitrogenous byproduct of amino acid metabolism enters tubule by filtration but much is passively reabsorbed
uric acid (2) nitrogenous byproduct of nucleic acid metabolism majority reabsorbed to be recycled by body
gout condition in which uric acid crystallizes out of blood and deposits in joints of hands and feet
gout treatment drugs that inhibit uric acid reabsorption
ions always lost in urine (4) sodium potassium others potential bodily deficiency with excess urine production
ureters tubular organ that conducts urine from kidney to bladder via slow peristaltic waves squirts into bottom portion of bladder past flap-like valves
bladder hollow distensible organ that stored urine
shape and size of bladder greatly influenced by surrounding organs
trigone region at base of bladder where ureters enter and urethra exits
detruser muscle forms internal sphincter around urethra reflex will not allow relaxation until pressure in bladder reaches a certain level
micturition reflex process by which urine is expelled from the bladder
process of micturition (4) bladder distended, stretch receptors transmit to micturition reflex center in sacral spinal cord reflex triggers release of internal sphincter, urine progresses to external sphincter
urinary urgency pressure on external sphincter
composition of external sphincter skeletal muscle under voluntary control
nervous center for contraction of external sphincter cerebral cortex and brain stem
nervous center for relaxation of external sphincter pons and hypothalamus
urethra muscular tube that connects the bladder to external urethral orifice and drains urine
gender urethral differences very short in females males have prostatic and penile urethra
female short urethra can cause easier bladder infection
what can any prostate enlargement impair urine flow
water accounts for what % of body mass, what determines %? 45-75% age, gender, fat:muscle ratio
water % of infants 75%
water % of adults 50-60%
water % of aged 45%
more fat= less water
intracellular fluids (ICF) (3) within cells approx. 2/3of body water abundant potassium, magnesium, phosphate ions
extracellular fluids (ECF) (2) outside of cells abundant sodium, chloride, bicarbonate ions
plasma fluid of blood contains large amount of albumins
albumins negatively charged proteins
interstitial fluid fluid between cells
fluid movement between compartments regulated by? osmotic and hydrostatic pressure
water movement between compartments moves freely
solute movement restricted by size and charge dependent on active transport
osmosis water always follows solute movement
water balance intake should = output
input sources and % ingested foods and fluids (90%) metabolic water (10%)
regulation of input thirst mechanism
thirst mechanism (3) hypothalamus osmoreceptors sense increased plasma osmolarity or decreased fluid volume inhibit secretions from salivary glands sensation of being thirsty
output sources and examples (4) lungs (moist air is expired with each breath) skin (sweat) GI tract (feces) kidneys (urine)
obligatory water loss unavoidable daily loss of water through skin, feces, lungs, and urine ~500mL per day
beyond obligatory loss urine volume provided mechanism for water balance regulated by aldosterone and ADH
dehydration when water loss exceeds water intake dry skin, thirst, decreased urine output
hypotonic hydration (4) when body fluids are excessively diluted cells become swollen by water entry most common in babies given water or diluted formula potentially lethal due to cerebral edema
edema abnormal accumulation of water in interstitial space can impair blood circulation
electrolyte balance salts, acids, and bases usually refers to only salt balance
electrolyte intake via diet some electrolytes are ingested in excess amounts
electrolyte loss via sweat, feces, urine
short-term electrolyte regulation urine is only source
sodium in fluid and electrolyte balance (4) central role most abundant ion in ECF (90-95% of all solutes) major effector of ECF osmotic pressure control water volume and distribution among compartments
Na+ transport in renal tubules coupled to: K+, Cl-, HCO3- and H+ concentration in ECF
renin-angiotensin system regulates: water balance and BP
regulation of sodium balance renin-angiotensin system under neural control of sympathetic tone
Mg2+ excretion increased by aldosterone
cardiovascular baroreceptors acts as sensors of BP
falling arterial pressure vasoconstriction and increased sodium reabsorption
rising arterial pressure vasodilation and increased sodium excretion
atrial naturietic peptide (ANP) increased BP stimulates certain atrial myocytes to release ANP inhibits renin/aldosterone and ADH pathways thereby enhancing sodium and water excretion
estrogens in balance system enhance sodium reabsorption
regulation of calcium balance controlled by calcitonin and PTH
calcitonin stimulates removal of calcium from blood
PTH stimulates deposit of calcium into blood
acids proton donors
strong acids completely disassociate in solution
weak acids incompletely disassociate in solution
bases proton acceptors
blood pH tightly, homeostatically controlled in arterial blood between 7.35 and 7.45
acidosis blood pH below 7.35
alkalosis blood pH above 7.45
origin of protons in blood (4) ingested food (minor source) breakdown of phosphorus containing proteins (phosphoric acid) incomplete oxidation of fats (ketones) or glucose (lactic acid) dissolved carbon dioxide (carbonic acid)
mechanisms to regulate blood pH (3) chemical buffering systems respiratory system regulation renal mechanism
chemical buffering systems composed of a weak acid and its salt rapidly resist excessive pH changes by releasing or removing H+
examples of chemical buffering systems bicarbonate proteins phosphate ammonia
respiratory system regulation acidosis activates respiratory center to increase respiration rate and depth of ventilation eliminates excess CO2 causing an increase in pH of blood
renal mechanism major long term control of pH only source to eliminate metabolic organic acids (except carbonic) from the body H+ produced via respiration of kidney tubule cells secreted into filtrate
renal mechanism exchange system for each H+ secreted, on Na+ and one HCO3- are reabsorbed
how is urine buffered via phosphate and ammonia in filtrate
controlling systems of the body nervous endocrine
nervous system rapid control via nerve impulses
endocrine system prolonged control via the action of hormones primarily influences cellular metabolism
endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into blod stream systemic delivery to all cells/tissues
hormone a substance made in one location that exerts its effect at another location in the body
exocrine gland secretes product into a duct for delivery to one location
major endocrine glands of the body (8) pituitary thyroid adrenal pineal thymus pancreas gonads parathyroid
organs that contain isolated cluster of cells with endocrine functions (6) stomach small intestine kidneys heart liver adipose
hypothalamus has both neural functions and works with pituitary gland
steroid hormones derivatives of cholesterol flat, hydrophobic molecules
amine hormones derivatives of amino acids
peptide hormones short chains of amino acids
protein hormones long chains of amino acids
function of hormones alter specific metabolic processes
target specificity hormone must be recognized by cell in order to have effect cells have receptors specific for certain hormones
hormone receptors dynamic body can alter which receptor are present on various cells and in what quantity alters degree of response to hormonal message and effect
steroid hormones mechanism of action (5) steroid diffuses across membrane, hormone/receptor complex initiates mRNA production, new protein sysnthesis, diffuse into cell and bind to protein receptors, receptor moves to nucleus and initiates mRNA translation of specific group of genes
nonsteroid hormones mechanism of action bind to cell membrane receptor, binding activates intracellular portion of receptor, hormone-receptor complex triggers intracellular signaling pathway, activates/deactivates protein already present in cell
half-life and duration of effect limited and vary for each hormone
what is half life and duration dependent on rate of release speed of inactivation and removal from body
how are hormones removed from body blood by degrading enzymes, kidneys, liver enzyme systems
function of negative feedback loops maintain hormone levels in very narrow ranges
negative feedback loop of hormone secretion hypothalamus, anterior pituitary release tropic hormones, stimulates other glands to secrete, secondary endocrine organ, effector hormone
glands under direct neural control posterior pituitary pineal
changes in environment and example some glands respond to changes in internal environment beta cells of pancreas detect glucose levels
positive feedback loops amplifies original stimulus fewer examples increase hormone concentration
pituitary gland master gland of the body hangs from base of brain via infundibulum and is encased within sella turcica
anterior pituitary hormone secreting glandular portion
posterior pituitary neural portion which is an extension of the hypothalamus
role of hypothalamus regulates hormonal output of anterior via Releasing Factors and Inhibiting Factors, portal tract between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, synthesizes two hormones that are transported and stored in posterior pituitary for later release
hormones of the anterior pituitary tropic hormones, prolactin, growth hormone
tropic hormones regulate release of hormones from other endocrine organs
gonadotropins follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH), reproductive functions
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) thyroid control
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) adrenal cortex control
prolactin (PRL) promotes milk production
growth hormone (GH) anabolic hormone that stimulates growth of all body tissues, stimulates somatomedians production in liver
somatomedians mobilizes fats from adipose tissue and stimulates overall protein synthesis while inhibiting glucose uptake and metabolism
growth hormone most potent effect on skeletal muscle and bone
GH hypersecretion produces giantism in children and acromegaly in adults
GH hyposecretion in children produces dwarfism
hormones of the posterior pituitary both made in hypothalamus, oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone
oxytocin actions dependent upon presence or absence plus number of receptors, labor contractions, milk ejection, orgasm
oxytocin reflex controlled via hypothalamus by positive feedback
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) kidney control
thyroid gland located in anterior throat
thyroxin or thyroid hormone acts to increase rate of cellular metabolism, manufactured in follicles of thyroid and stored as inactive colloid
Thyroxin action low metabolic levels sensed by hypothalamus, release of thyrotropin-releasing factor, release of TSH from pituitary, re-uptake of colloid and conversion to T3 and T4 for secretion
T3 and T4 most T4 is converted to T3 in target tissues, T3 is more potent, 95% of circulating hormone is T4
hyperthyroidism commonly due to Grave’s disease, tumor, or other cause
symptoms of hyperthyroidism overactivity, weight loss, nervousness, sweaty palms and forehead
hypothyroidism common with increasing age, lethargy and weight gain, iodine deficiency, cretinism
iodine deficiency enlarged thyroid
cretinism due to maternal and/or infant hypothyroidism
calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels by stimulating activity of osteoblasts, manufactured by parafollicular cells
parathyroid glands located on dorsal surface of thyroid gland, secrete parathyroid hormone
PTH antagonist of calcitonin, elevates blood calcium levels via several mechanisms
PTH mechanisms increases osteoclast activity, stimulates activation of vitamin D in kidneys and production of calcium binding protein in small intestine, increase absorption of dietary calcium, increases active calcium reabsorption from filtrate in kidney
hyperparathyroidism wasting away of bone due to excessive activity of osteoclasts
hypoparathyroidism blood calcium levels too low impairs muscle action, tetany and respiratory paralysis
adrenal glands located on superior surface of each kidney, functionally divided into cortex and medulla
adrenal cortical hormones steroid hormones, cholesterol derivatives, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids
mineralocorticoids primarily aldosterone, increases blood pressure via reabsorption of sodium, release stimulated by renin/angiotensin system and/or ACTH, inhibited by atrial natriuretic factor
adrenal hormone indirect regulation levels of other electrolytes that are coupled to sodium transport (rennin-angiontensin mechanism)
glucocorticoids primarily cortisol, important metabolic hormones that enable the body to resist stressors
glucocorticoid actions increase blood glucose, fatty acids, and a.a. levels, increase blood pressure, inhibit inflammation and immune responses, stimulated primarily by ACTH
gonadocorticoids primarily androgens and estrogens, produced in small amounts throughout life in both sexes, cooperate with hormones released by gonads
adrenal medulla hormones catecholomines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
epinephrine and norepinephrine prolong the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic division of the ANS, neurotransmitters secreted into bloodstream
secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine causes blood glucose levels to rise, rise in blood pressure, the heart to beat faster, etc…
pancreas endocrine portion called islets of Langerhans composed of alpha and beta cells
alpha cells produce glucagon
beta cells produce insulin
glucagon polypeptide hormone released by alpha cells when blood glucose levels falling, stimulates liver to breakdown stored glycogen and release glucose into bloodstream
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen
gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates
insulin released by beta cells in response to rising blood glucose levels, stimulates cellular uptake and metabolism of glucose, enhances transport of glucose into body cells
diabetes mellitus lack of production or loss of receptor sensitivity
gonads ovary and testes
pineal gland located within diencephalon of brain, produces melatonin
melatonin influences daily rhythms such as sleep/wake cycles
thymus produces hormones necessary for the proper development of the immune system (t lymphocytes or t cells)
increased osteoclast activity calcium release from bone
Created by: 504375701



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