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GE 258 CH 6-8

contains no blood vessels or nerves skeletal cartilage
surrounded by the perichondrium that resists outward expansion skeletal cartilage
three types of skeletal cartilage hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
type of cartilage that provides support, flexibility, and resilience hyaline cartilage
type of cartilage that is most abundant in skeletal cartilage hyaline cartilage
type of cartilage that is presented in these cartilages: articulat, costal, respiratory, nasal hyaline cartilage
hyaline cartilage is presented in these type of cartilage articular, costal, respiratory, nasal
type of hyaline cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum costal
type of hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of long bones articular
type of hyaline cartilage that makes up larynx, reinforces air passages respiratory
type of hyaline cartilage that supports the nose nasal
type of cartilage that is similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers elastic cartilage
type of cartilage that is found in the external ear and the epiglottis elsatic cartilage
type of cartilage that is highly compressed with great tensile strength fibrocartilage cartilage
type of cartilage that contains collagen fibers fibrocartilage cartilage
type of cartilage that is found in menisci of the knee and in the intervertebral discs fibrocartilage cartilage
cells in the perichondrium that secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage appositional
lacunae-bound chondrocytes inside the cartilage dividing and secreting new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within interstitial
calcificationof cartilage occurs during normal bone growth and old age
bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage axial skeleton
bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip appendicular skeleton
type of bone that is longer than they are wide long bone
type of bone that is cube-shaped short bones
type of bone that makes up the wrist and ankle short bones
type of bone that form within the tendons short bones
type of bone that is thin, flattened, and a bit curved flat bones
type of bone that makes up the sternum, and mosk skull bone flat bones
type of bone that has complicated shapes irregular bones
type of bone that makes up the vertebrae and hip bones irregular bones
function of the bone support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation
known as blood cell formation that occurs within the the marrow cavities of bones hematopoiesis
bone marking that is a rounded projection tuberosity
bone marking that is narrow, prominent ridge of bone crest
bone marking that has a large, blunt, irregular surgace tronchanter
bone marking that is a narrow ridge of bone line
bone marking that is a small rounded projection tubercle
bone marking that is a raised area above a chondyle epicondyle
bone marking that is a sharp, slender projection spine
bone marking that is any bony prominence process
bone marking that is a bony expansion carried on a narrow neck head
bone marking that is smooth, nearly flat articular surface facet
bone marking that is a rounded articular projection condyle
bone marking that is an armlike bar of bone ramus
bone marking that is canal-like passageway meatus
bone marking that is a cavity within a bone meatus
bone marking that is shallow, basin-like depression fossa
bone marking that is furrow groove
bone marking that is narrow, slit-like opening fissure
bone marking that is round or oval opening through a bone foramen
dense outer layer of the bone compact bone
honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow spongy bone
structure of a long bone consist of a diaphysis and epiphysis
tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones diaphysis
composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity diaphysis
yellow bone marrow (fat) is contained in the medullary cavity diaphysis
expanded ends of long bone epiphyses
exterior is compact bone, and the interior is spongy bone epiphyses
bone membrane that is a double-layered of protective membrane periosteum
outer fibrous layer of the periosteum is dense regular connective tissue
inner osteogenic layer of periosteum is composed of osteoblast, osteoclast
periosteum is secured to theunderlying bone by sharpey's fibers
delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone endosteum
location of hematopoietic tissue (red marrow) in infants found in medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bones
location of hematopoietic tissue (red marrow) in adults found in the dipole of flat bones, and the head of the femur and humerus
the structual unit of compact bone Haverisan system, or osteon
wight bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen lamella
central channel containing blood vessels and nerves haversia, or central canal
channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal Volkmann's canals
mature bone cells osteocytes
small cavities in bone that conatin osteocytes lacunae
hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal canaliculi
bone-forming cells osteoblasts
mature bone cells osteocytes
large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix osteoclasts
unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen osteoid
bone develops from a fibrous membrane intramembranous ossification
bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage endochondral ossification
begins in the second month of bone development endochondral ossification
uses hyaline cartilage "bones" as models for bone construction endochondral ossification
requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification endochondral ossification
function zone in long bone growth in which cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis growth zone
function zone in long bone growth in which older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, and the matrix begins to deteriorate transformation zone
functional zones in long bone growth in which new bone formation occurs osteogenic zone
long bone growth and remodeling in which the cartilage continually grows and is replaced by bone growth in length
long bone growth and remodeling in which bone is resorbed and added by appositional growth remodeling
during infancy and childhood, epiphyseal plate activity is stimulated by growth hormone
condition of bone in which there is inadequate minerlization. Osteoid produced byt no calcium salts of or lack of Vit. D osteomalacia
condition of the bone in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit osteoporosis
type of bone fracture in which bone ends retain thier normal position nondisplaced
type of bone fracture in which bone ends are out of normal alignment displaced
type of bone fracture in which the bone is broken all the way through complete
type of bone fracture in which the bone is not broken all the way through incomplete
type of bone fracture in which the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone linear
type of bone fracture in which the facture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone transverse
type of bone fracture in which the bone end penetrate the skin compound (open)
type of bone fracture in which the bone end do not penetrate the skin simple (closed)
type of bone fracture that is an incomplete fracture more common in children (more flexible) greenstick
a bone grows or remodels in response to the forces or demands placed upon it Wolff's Law
weakest part of the skeleton joints (articulations)
site where two or more bones meet articulation
function of joints skeleton mobility, hold the skeleton together
three functional classes of joints are: synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
immovable joint synarthroses
slightly movable joint amphiarthroses
freely movable joint diarthroses
three structural classifications of joints are fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
joint in which bones are joined by fibrous tissues fibrous structural joints
joint in which there is no joint cavity fibrous structural joints
joint in which most are immovable fibrous structural joints
three types of fibrous structural joints sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
fibrous structural joints that occur between the bones of the skull sutures
fibrous structural joint that comprises of interlocking junction completely filled with connective tissue fibers sutures
fibrous structural joint in which bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament syndesmoses
fibrous structural joint in which movement varies from immovable to slightly variable syndesmoses
examples of fibrous structural joint includes the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna syndesmoses
joint in which articulating bones are united by cartilage cartilaginous joint
lacks a joint cavity cartilaginous joint
two types of cartilaginous joint synchondrosies and symphyses
cartilaginous joint in which a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones synchondroses
examples of cartilaginous joint include epiphyseal plates of children, joint between costal cartilage of the first rib and the sternum synchondroses
cartilaginous joint in which hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage symphyses
amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility symphyses
examples of cartilaginous joint include intervertebral joints and the public symphysis of the pelvis symphyses
those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity synovial joint
freely movable diarthroses synovial joint
examples of joint include all limb joints and most joints of the body synovial joint
synovial joints general structure include: articular cartilage, joint (synovial) cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments
flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid bursae
common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together bursae
elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon tendon sheath
stability of a synovial joint is determined by articular surfaces, ligaments
shape determines what movments are possible articular surface
unite bones and prevent exxessive or undesirable motion ligaments
muscle tone is accomplished by muscle tendons across joints acting as stablizing factors and tendons are kept tight at times by muscle tone
the two muscle attachments across a joint are origin, insertion
attachment to the immovable bone origin
attachment to the movable bone insertion
range of motion to include slipping movements only nonaxial
range of motion to include movement in one plane uniaxial
range of motion to include movement in two planes biaxial
range of motion to include movement in or around all three planes multiaxial
range of motion in which one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface gliding movement
examples include intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae gliding movement
bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint flexion
reverse of felxion; joint angle is increased extension
up and down movment of the foot dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
movement away from the midline abduction
movement toward the midline adduction
movement describes a cone in space circumduction
the turning of a bone around its own long axis rotation
the ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn sprains
partially torn ligaments are repaired by repairing themselves slowly
completely torn ligaments are repaired by prompt surgcial repair
occurs when bones are forced out of alignment dislocation
parital dislocation of a joint subluxation
an inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction bursitis
inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse tendonitis
considered an non-inflammatory condition of arthritis osteoarthritis
most common chronic arthritis; often called "wear-and-tear" arthritis osteoarthritis
chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause, with an insidious onset rheumatoid arthritis
deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by inflammation response gouty arthritis
Created by: evang



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