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LOM terms Chap2

Terms to practice spelling and learn meaning

anabolism Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
catabolism Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
cell membrane Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
chromosomes Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 ___ (23 pairs) in every cell except for egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired ___.
cytoplasm All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
DNA Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. Ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum.
genes Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
karyotype Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
metabolism The total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
mitochondria Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy.
nucleus Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.
adipose tissue Collection of fat cells.
cartilage Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints.
epithelial cell Skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surface of organs.
histologist Specialist in the study of tissues.
larynx Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea.
pharynx Throat. The ___ is the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea).
pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
thyroid gland Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
trachea Windpipe (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes).
ureter One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder. Spelling clue: ___ has two e's and there are two of them.
urethra Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Spelling clue: ___ has one e and there is only one ___.
uterus The womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it develops.
viscera Internal organs.
abdominal cavity Space between the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines.
cranial cavity Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
abdomen The abdominal cavity is also called this.
cranial Means pertaining to the skull.
diaphragm Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
dorsal (posterior) Pertaining to the back.
mediastinum Centrally located space between the lungs.
pelvic cavity Space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.Surrounded by the hip (__) bone.
pelvic Means pertaining to the hip bone.
peritoneum Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.
pleura A double-layered membrane surrounding each lung.
pleural cavity Space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung.
spinal cavity Space within the spinal column (backbones) and containing the spinal cord.
spinal canal The spinal cavity is also called this.
thoracic cavity Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.
ventral (anterior) Pertaining to the front.
viscus Singular for viscera.
hypochondriac Abdominopelvic regions: Upper right and left regions beneath the ribs.
epigastric Abdominopelvic region: Upper middle region above the stomach.
lumbar Abdominopelvic regions: Middle right and left regions near the waist.
umbilical Abdominopelvic region: Central region near the naval.
inguinal Abdominopelvic regions: Lower right and left regions near the groin. Also called the iliac regions.
hypogastric Abdominopelvic region: Lower middle region below the umbilical region.
RUQ Right upper abdominopelvic quadrant.
LUQ Left upper abdominopelvic quadrant.
RLQ Right lower abdominopelvic quadrant.
LLQ Left lower abdominopelvic quadrant.
cervical Division of the back (spinal column): Neck region (C1-C7)
thoracic Division of the back (spinal column): Chest region (T1-T12). Each bone is joined to a rib.
lumbar Division of the back (spinal column): Loin (waist) region (L1-L5)
sacral Division of the back (spinal column): Region of the sacrum (S1-S5).
coccygeal Division of the back (spinal column): Region of the coccyx (tailbone).
sacrum Five bones fused to form one bone forming the sacral region of the spinal column.
coccyx A small bone composed of four fused pieces (tailbone).
vertebra A single backbone.
vertebrae Backbones.
spinal column Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.
spinal cord Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.
disk (disc) A pad of cartilage between vertebrae.
anterior (ventral) Front side of the body.
deep Away from the surface.
distal Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.
frontal (coronal) plane Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions.
inferior (caudal) Below another structure.
lateral Pertaining to the side.
medial Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.
posterior (dorsal) Back side of the body.
prone Lying on the belly (face down, palm down).
proximal Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure.
sagittal (lateral) plane Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides.
midsagittal plane Vertical plane dividing the body into right and left halves.
superficial On the surface.
superior (cephalic) Above another structure.
supine Lying on the back (face up, palm up).
transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane Horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
Created by: TracyR