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Ch.14/MED 126

The Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system includes: Lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymph nodules, spleen, thymus gland
What is the fluid in the lymphatic vessels called? Lymph
Lymph begins as filtrate from plasma in the _________ space? Interstitial
Lymph returns excess fluid not returned by _____ in the capillaries? Osmosis
Lymph helps maintain? BP
Lymph vessels carry? Lymph
Lymph vessels begin as blind/dead-end capillaries called? Lymph capillaries
Where are lymph vessels found? In the interstitial spaces of most tissues
What prevents fluid from moving out of the lymph vessels? Endothelial cells that create flaps
What are specialized lymph capillaries in the villi of the small intestine? Lacteals
What do lacteals absorb? Fat soluble products
Lymph in extremities flows via the? Skeletal muscle pump
Valves made of endothelium prevent lymph from flowing? Down
As muscles contract it forces lymph? Up
Lymph elsewhere is pushed toward the heart by? The vasoconstriction of the lymph vessels
What creates pressure during breathing to push lymph from the vessels in the lungs and chest cavity? Respiratory pump
Lymph all flows back to the? Blood stream
Vessels in the lower body unite in front of the lumbar spine to form the? Cisterna chyli
Cisterna chylic becomes the _________ which travels along the spine? Thoracic duct
The thoracic duct unites with vessels of the left upper body and empty into the? Left subclavian vein
Vessels of the right upper body unite to form the ______________ and empty into the right subclavian vein? Right lymphatic duct
What do valves help prevent during lymph flow? Prevent blood from flowing back into the lymph
Lymphatic tissue mainly consists of? Lymphocytes in a framework of connective tissue
What migrates to the lymphatic tissue and become lymphocytes? WBCs
Lymphocytes proliferate in response to? Infections in all lymphatic tissue
What type of cells does the thymus have the produces most of the T lymphocytes? Stem cells
What are masses of lymphatic tissue? Lymph nodes
Lymph nodes are encapsulated in? Connective tissue
Where are lymph nodes found? Found in groups along lymphatic vessels
Afferent vessels flow _______ the node? Toward
Efferent vessels flow _______ the node? Away
As lymph passes through, pathogens are phagocytized by resident/fixed lymphocytes called? Macrophages
Plasma cells develop from ________ exposed to pathogens? Lymphocytes (B cells)
Plasma cells produce? Antibodies
Pathogens more likely to enter the body parts that are drained by which areas? Cervical, axillary, and inguinal nodes
Nodes may swell when fighting? Infection
What are smaller than nodes? Lymph nodule
Are lymph nodules unencapsulated? Yes
Where are lymph nodules found? Found just beneath all mucosa
Lymph nodules in the small intestine are called? Peyer's Patches
Lymph nodules in the pharynx are called? Tonsils
Where is the spleen located? LUQ just beneath the diaphragm, behind the stomach, covered by the ribs
The spleen in the fetus produces? RBCs
What are the functions of the spleen after birth? Contains plasma cells that produce antibodies; RE cells phagocytize pathogens and old RBC's and form bilirubin; Stores platelets
The thymus is inferior to the? Thyroid gland
The thymus produces? T cells
What enables the T cells to recognize foreign antigens and thus provide immunity? Thymic hormones
What is immunity? The ability to destroy pathogens and foreign material to prevent infection
What two things can be recognized as foreign? Mutated cells and organ transplants
What are the chemical markers on cell membranes that identify cells? Antigens
What type of immunity is nonspecific, no memory, and doesn't become more efficient with exposure? Innate immunity
What type of barrier is keratinized epithelium? Epidermis
What type of barrier prevents bacterial growth? Sebum
What type of barrier is antimicrobial made in the live epidermal cells? Defensins
What type of barrier is a structural barrier? Mucosa
What type of barrier sweeps pathogens out to be swallowed? Ciliated epithelium
What type of barrier is an enzyme in saliva and tears that destroy pathogens? Lysozyme
What type of barrier is in the submucosa and subcutaneous tissue? WBCs
Whar are 2 types of defensive cells? WBCs and Lymphocytes
What are found in areolar connective tissue that release chemicals that contribute to inflammation, increases capillary permeability, and causes vasodilation? Basophils and mast cells
What type of cell is a natural killer cell? Lymphocytes
Where are lymphocytes found? Blood, RBM, spleen, and nodes
What do lymphocytes destroy? Pathogen and tumor cells by releasing chemicals including perforins
What are 3 types of chemical defenses? Interferons, compliment, and inflammation
What are the proteins produced by T cells and cells infected with viruses called? Interferons
How do interforns prevent? Cells infected with viruses from multiplying
What are plasma proteins that when activated cause a variety of responses including antigen lysis and labeling, stimulating histamine release, and attracting WBCs? Compliment
What is the general response to damage? Inflammation
What are 4 signs of inflammation? Swelling, heat, redness, and pain
What is adaptive immunity? Immunity that responds and learns as it responds to situations
Adaptive immunity is carried out by? Lymphocytes and macrophages
Majority of lymphocytes are? T cells and B cells
T cells are produced from? Stem cells in the thymus and bone marrow in the fetus
Where do T cells migrate to? The lymphatic tissue (nodes, spleen, nodules)
B cells are produced in? Bone marrow (adult and fetus)
B cells migrate directly to? Lymphatic issue
Some __ cells will divide into plasma cells during an immune response to produce antibodies? B cells
What 2 cells have very specific recognition of pathogens unlike macrophages and will attack any foreign pathogen with which it comes in contact with? T cells and B cells
What happens when a macrophage phagocytizes a pathogen? It "presents" the pathogens foreig antigens on its surface along with its "self" antigens
What cells called helper T cells become sensitized to the specific foreign antigen presented on the macrophage? T cells
What are the 2 mechanisms of adaptive immunity? Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity
Cell-mediated immunity does not result in production of? Antibodies
During cell-mediated immunity, activated helper T cells divide several times to become? Cytotoxic/Killer T cells
Cytotoxic/Killer T cells lyse? Cell membranes
Cytotoxic/Killer T cells produce ______ which attract macrophages and activates them? Cytokine
What type of T cells reactivate with future exposure and start the cell-mediated immune response? Memory T cells
Cell-mediated immunity is AKA? Cellular immunity
Antibody-mediated immunity is AKA? Humoral immunity
Antibody-mediated immunity consists of? T cells, B cells, and macrophages
During which mediated immunity are antibodies produced? Antibody-mediated
B cells divide into? Memory B cells and Plasma cells
What type of cells remember specific antigens and genearate a quick response with subsequent exposure? Memory B cells
What cells produce antibodies to the antigen? Plasma cells
Antibodies are AKA? Immune globulins, immunoglobulins, gammaglobulins, or lg
Antibodies are specific for only one? Antigen
What is opsonization? "Labeling" foreign antigens by sticking to them which creates antigen-antibody complex
Opsonization stimulates? Complement fixation
When certain complement proteins bond to the antigen-antibody complex, it is called? Complement fixation
What are the 2 types of complement fixation? Complete and partial
What complement attaches to the entire complex and to each other and destroys the organism? Complete
What are clumps of complexes that make it easier for phagocytosis called? Agglutination
What complement attaches to the complex but not enough to destroy it? Partial
Partial complement causes _________ (chemically induced movement) of macrophages? Chemotaxis
The first exposure to antibodies causes? Slow production of few antibodies
The second exposure to antibodies causes? Rapid production
What is an allergy An over reaction to foreign antigens
Allergies is an overporduction of IgE and causes? Tissue damage
The 2 types of immunity are? Genetic and acquired
Which type of immunity does not involve the immune system? Genetic
Which type of immunity involves antibodies? Acquired
Acquired immunity consists of 2 types of immunity called? Active and passive immunity
What is passive immunity? Immunity from another source
What type of immunity is temporary, natural or artificial, passed through the placenta and breast milk, and injection of gamma globulins and of preformed antibodies? Passive immunity
Examples of preformed antibodies are? German measles, hepatitis A and B, tetanus, botulism, and rabies
What is active immunity? Where the individual produces his own antibodies
What type of acquired immunity is permanent, natural or artificial? Active immunity
Created by: laceylake



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