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Anatomy chapt 13

leptin a hormone secreted by adipocytes (fat cells)
acromegaly abnormal enlargement of the extremities (hands & feet) that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
cretinism a congenital form of hypothyroidism. If treatment is not started soon after birth, cretinism causes arrested physical & mental development
chemical thyroidectomy AKA radioactive iodine therapy, is the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells
cortisol AKA hydrocortisone, has an anti-inflammatory action, & it regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats & proteins in the body
addison's disease occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
adrenalitis inflammation of the adrenal glands
aldosteronism an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
Conn's syndrome a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone
Cushing's syndrome AKA hypercortisolism, is caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol
diabetes insipidus is caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone
diabetes mellitus a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both
diabetic retinopathy occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball
hypercrinism a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland
hypocrinism a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland
gigantism AKA giantism, is abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty
hyperpituitarism pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
pituitarism any disorder of pituitary function
pituitary adenoma AKA a pituitary tumor, is a slow-growing, benign tumor of the pituitary gland
prolactinoma AKA a prolactin-producing adenoma, is a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin
pinealoma a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin
Hashimoto's thyroiditis AKA chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack & destroy the cells of the thyroid gland
hypothyroidism AKA an underactive thyroid, is caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion
myxedema AKA adult hypothyroidism, is caused by exteme deficiency of thyroid secretion
hyperthyroidism AKA thyrotoxicosis, is an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones
Graves' disease an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism, is characterized by goiter &/or exophthalmos
exophthalmos an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit
hypocalcemia is characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
thymitis an inflammation of the thymus gland
thymectomy the surgical removal of the thymus gland
glycogen the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose
insulinoma a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin
pancreatalgia pain in the pancreas
hyperglycemia an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia excessive hunger
polyuria excessive urination
hyperinsulinism the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream
hypoglycemia an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood
gestational diabetes a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies. This condition usually disappears after delivery; however, many of these women later develop type 2 diabetes
fructosamine test measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks. The fructosamine test is able to detect changes more rapidly than the HbA1c test
electrolytes mineral substances, such as sodium & potassium, that are normally found in the blood
epinephrine AKA adrena line, stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or other stimuli
pheochromocytoma a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine
laparoscopic adrenalectomy a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands
estrogen important in the development & maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics & in regulation of the menstrual cycle
gynecomastia the condition of excessive mammary development in the male
DI diabetes insipidus
DM diabetes mellitus
DR, DRP diabetic retinopathy
FBS fasting blood sugar
FA fructosamine test
GD Graves' disease
HG hypoglycemia
LEP, LPT leptin
PC, PCC, Pheo pheochromocytoma
Created by: KarenAndVic



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