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Chapters 22 - 25

Lymphatic, respiratory & digestive

Catabolism breakdown complex organic molecules into simpler ones
Anabolism synthesis reactions (stores energy, builds, repais things)
minerals inorganic elements
vitamins organic nutrients required in small amounts
nutrients substances the body uses for energy, growth, maintenance & repair of tissues
ingestion taking food or liquids into the mouth
mechanical digestion stomach mixes/churns food
chemical digestion breakdown of foods by enzymes & acid
GERD stomach contents leak backwards into the esophogus
rugae large folds in the mucosa when stomach is empty
chyme semi-fluid mixture of partially digested food
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
hemorrhoids enlarged rectal veins
hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by viruses, drugs or alcohol
peptic ulcers craterlike lesions that develop in GI tract; can case bleeding
cirrhosis scarred liver
gastroenterology study of the stomach & intestines
metabolism all the chemical reacions of the body
gallstones small pebble-like structures that can block bile ducts
IBS pain & alternating bouts of diarrhea & constipation possibly due to stress
Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's) inflammation of any part of the GI tract
residual volume amount of air that always remains in the lungs
vital capacity total volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume
apnea temporary cessation of breathing
dyspnea difficult breathing
surfactant complex mixture of phospholipids & lipoproteins. Lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid which reduces collapse of alveoli
lymphoma cancer of the lymph nodes
anaphylactic shock life threatening emergency. trouble breath & signs of shock
anaphylaxis reaction may cause inflammation, hives, runny nose or difficulty breathing
allergen substance that causes an allergic reaction
hypersensitivity (allergy) when the immune system overreacts
plasma cells produce antibodies which fight a pathogen
memory B cells produce plasma cells. can become stimulated on their own
IgE fight parasitic infections
IgG first antibody produced during the secondary response. remain in the body
antibodies (immunoglobins) binds & inactivates a foreign invader
edema swelling from too much interstitial fluid accumulates in the tissues
antigen foreign substance that causes an immune response
nonspecific resistance first line of defense
specific resistance/immunity body's defense against a specific pathogen or foreign substance
auto-immune disorder immune system is not working correctly & starts attacking itself
external respiration gas exchange between alveoli (lungs) & blood capillaries
inhalation/inspiration air flows in
exhalation/expiration air flows out
respirometer/spirometer instrument used to measure breathing volumes (amount of air)
tonsillectomy surgical removal of the tonsils
lymph name for interstitial fluid once it enters the lymphatic system
internal respiration gas exchange between blood capillaries & the cells
pathogen disease causing organism
phagocytosis pathogens are engulfed & destroyed by neutrophils & macrophages
major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens helps immune system recognize "self" from "non-self"
diaphram done-shaped skeletal muscle at floor of thoracic cavity; used in breathing
fever elevation of core temp caused by a resetting of the hypothalimic thermostat
hypoxia lack of adequate oxygen at the tissue level
pulmonary ventilation moving air in & out of the lungs
pulmonology study of the lungs
asthma chronic airway inflammation. bronchioles spasm & constrict
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
pleuritis/pleurisy inflammation of the plural membrane
hyperventalation rapid & deep breathing to get rid of extra carbon dioxide in the blood
chronic brochitis inflammation of the bronchi that results in excessive mucus production. type of COPD
emphysema alveoli get destroyed which reduces the amount of oxygen that can be exchanged by the lungs
pneumonia infection of the aveoli that may be the result of a virus or bacteria
tuberculosis highly contagious bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
cystic fibrosis inherited disease that causes excess mucus production in the lungs
SIDS death of an infant less than 12 months old due to hypoxia while sleeping
expiratory reserve volume amount of extra air that can be forceable exhaled
inspiratory reserve volume amount of extra air that can be forceably inhaled
tidal volume amount of air in one normal breath
eupnea normal breathing
opportunistic infection infection that occurs from a weakened immune system
Created by: Nettie22389



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