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Ch.14/MED 126

The Lymphatic System and Immunity-Practice Test

QuestionAnswer
Water within capillaries is called? Plasma
Water found in the spaces between cells is called? Tissue fluid
Blood plasma becomes tissue fluid by the process of? Filtration
Tissue fluid that has entered lymph capillaries is called? Lymph
The vessel that empties lymph into the left subclavian vein is the? Thoracic duct
The vessel that empties lymph into the right subclavian vein is the? Right lymphatic duct
The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the? Lower body
Lymph from the lower half and upper left quadrant of the body drains into the? Thoracic duct
Lymph from the upper right quadrant of the body drains into the? Right lymphatic duct
Backflow of lymph in the larger lymph vessels is prevented by? Valves
Lymph is kept moving in the larger lymph vessels by contraction of the _________ in their walls? Smooth muscle
In the larger lymph vessels of the legs, lymph is kept moving by the? Skeletal muscle pump
in the larger lymph vessels in the thoracic cavity, lymph is kept moving by the? Respiratory pump
Lymphocytes are activated and proliferate within? Lymphatic tissue
In general, lymph nodes are located along ________ and ________ flows through them? Lymph vessels, lymph
Lymph nodes and nodules contain ________ to phagocytize pathogens and _________ that produce antibodies? Macrophages, plasma cells
The ______ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the arms? Axillary
The ______ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the legs? Inguinal
The ______ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the head? Cervical
In general, lymph nodules are located beneath the ________ of body tracts lined with __________? Epithelium, mucous membranes
Lymph nodules destroy pathoges that have entered the body by way of? Natural openings
In the abdomen, the spleen is located on the _____ side behind the _____? Left, stomach
The cells in the spleen that phagocytize pathogens are _______, and the cells that produce antibodies are _______? Macrophages, plasma cells
The adult spleen, in terms of its functions, is very similar to a? Lymph node
If the adult spleen must be removed, the organs that will compensate for its functions are the? Liver and lymph nodes
The ______ and ______ are blood cells that are destroyed by the spleen? RBC, platelets
When the spleen destroys old RBCs, _______ is formed from the heme portion of the _______? Bilirubin, hemoglobin
The fetal spleen has a function that ceases after birth; this is the production of? RBCs
In the fetus and young child, the organ that is most important for the development of the immune system is the? Thymus gland
The lymphocytes that are produced by the thymus are called? T cells
In the young child, the thymus is located below the _______ and behind the ______? Thyroid gland, sternum
As a person reaches adulthood, the thymus gland ______ in size? Decreases
Antigens that are found on the cells of an individual are called self? Antigens
Foreign antigens are those that will stimulate production of? Antibodies
Examples of foreign antigens are? Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, tumor cells
The component of immunity that is specific as to antigen is ______ immunity? Adaptive
The component of immunity that is not specific as to antigen is _______ immunity? Innate
The component of immunity that creates memory is ________ immunity? Adaptiv
The component of immunity that does not create memory is ______ immunity? Innate
The component of immunity that may become more efficient with repeated exposures is _____ immunity? Adaptive
The component of immunity that does not become more efficient with repeated exposures is _______ immunity? Innate
In innate immunity, the body's outermost defense is an unbroken? Stratum corneum; epidermis
In innate immunity, defensins are antimicrobial chemicals produced by the cells of the? Epidermis
In innate immunity, the mobile cells of the epidermis that pick up pathogens are? Langerhans cells
In innate immunity, the secondary line of defense that contains mast cells and WBCs is the? Subcutaneous tissue
In the innate immunity, the antibacterial chemical in tears and saliva is? Lysozyme
Ingested pathogens are usually destroyed by the ____ in the stomach? HCl
The respiratory mucosa is lined with ________ to sweep inhaled pathogens out? Ciliated pathogens
The cells of innate immunity that activate the lymphocyes of adaptive immunity are the _______ and ________. Macrophages and Langerhans cells
The cells of innate immunity that are the most important phagocytes are the ______ and the _______? Macrophages and neutrophils
In innate immunity, the nonspecific lymphocytes that use perforins to destroy foreign cells are the? Natural killer cells
The cells on innate immunity that produce histamine and leukotrienes are the _______ and _______? Basophils and mast cells
In innate immunity, two chemicals that make capillaries more permeable are ______ and _______? Histamine and leukotrienes
In innate immunity, the effect of histamine on arterioles is to cause? Vasodilation
In innate immunity, the chemical that inhibits the reproduction of viruses within cells is? Interferon
In innate immunity, the function of interferon is to prevent the reproduction of _______ within cells? Viruses
In innate immunity, the chemical that lyses cellular antifens or labels non-cellular antigens is? Complement
in innate immunity, the purpose of inflammation is to destroy _____ and to permit ______ to begin? Pathogens, tissue repair
In innate immunity, the signs of inflammation are? Pain, redness, swelling, heat
In innate immunity, the function of neutrophis is? Phagocytosis
In innate immunity, the function of basophils is to produce? Histamine
Inflammation is the body's response to? Damage of any kind
In adaptive immunity, the cells that work together are the ________ and the _________? Macrophages and helper T cells
In adaptive immunity, macrophages and helper T cells work together to? Recognize foreign antigens
In adaptive immunity, the cells that have self antigens to be used for comparison to foreign antigens are the? Macrophages
In adaptive immunity, the mechanism that does not involve antibody production is? Cell-mediated immunity
In adaptive immunity, the labeling of a foregn antigen by antibodies is called? Opsonization
In adaptive immunity, the ________ T cells chemically destroy foreign antigens? Cytotoxic
In adaptive immunity, the ________ T cells remember a specific foreign antigen? Memory
In adaptive immunity, the _______ T cells contribute to the recognition of an antigen as foreign? Helper
In adaptive immunity, the ______ T cells activate B cells? Helper
In adaptive immunity, T cells are involved in all aspects of the mechanism called? Cell-mediated immunity
In the embryo, T cells are produced in the ___________ and ________? Red bone marrow, thymus
In the embryo, B cells are are produced in the? Red bone marrow
In adaptive immunity, the B cells that produce anitbodies are called? Plasma cells
In adaptive immunity, the _______ B cells remember a specific foreign antigen? Memory
In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation is activated by an? Antigen-antibody complex
In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation destroys cellular antigens by? Lysis; rupturing them
In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation destroys non-cellular antigens by attracting _______ for _______? Macrophages, phagocytosis
In adaptive immunity, when antibodies bond to bacteria they may cause clumping, which is called? Agglutination
An antibody molecule is made of ______ and is shaped like a? Protein, Y
in adaptive immunity, when antibodies bond to viruses, they change the shape of the viruses, which is called? Neutralization
In adaptive immunity, the bonding of antibodies to a bacterial toxin inactivates the toxin because its _____ has been changed? Shape
In adaptive immunity, a virus with antibodies attached is likely to be ______ by a ________? Phagocytized, macrophage
During the first exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus, antibodies are produced at a ______ rate of speed and in _____ amounts? Slow, small
After the first exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus, the person is left with ______ and ______ that are specific for the virus? Antibodies, memory cells
The first exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus often results in disease because antibodies are produced _______ to prevent it? Too slowly
During the second exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus, antibodies are produced at a ______ rate of speed and in _____ amounts? Rapid, large
A vaccine may contain a ________ or a ________ as an antigen? Killed pathogen, part of a pathogen
A vaccine stimulates production of ______ and _______? Antibodies, memory cells
A vaccine works because it takes the place of the _________ to the pathogen? First exposure
Virus diseases of plants do not affect people because people have _______ immunity to them? Genetic
Recovery from a disease provides _______ acquired ________ immunity? Naturally, active
A vaccine such as that for measles provides _______ acquired _______ immunity? Artificially, active
Placental transmission of maternal antibodies to a fetus provides _______ acquired _______ immunity? Naturally, passive
An injection of gamma globulins provides _______ acquired ______ immunity? Artificially, passive
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person? Recovers from a disease
Artificailly acquired active immunity occurs when a person? Receives a vaccine
An example of passive immunity that is naturally acquired is? Placental transmission of antibodies; breast milk
An example of passive immunity that is artifically acquired is? An injection of gamma globulins
In any form of passive immunity, the antibodies have come from? Someone else
In any form of active immunity, the antibodies have come from? The person's own plasma
A tetanus booster shot is an example of? Active immunity
An injection of tetanus immune globulin is an example of? Passive immunity
Created by: laceylake