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Chapter 13 Skeletal

QuestionAnswer
NAME THE 5 GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 1.SUPPORTS AND STABILIZES SURROUNDING TISSUE 2.PROTECTS VITAL ORGANS 3. ASSISTS IN BODY MOVEMENT (LOCOMOTION) 4. MANUFACTURE BLOOD CELLS 5. BONES ARE STORAGE AREA
WHAT TISSUE DOES THE SKELETAL SYS SUPPORT MUSCLES, BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, FAT AND SKIN
WITHOUT THE SUPPORT OF TISSUE BY THE SKELETAL SYSTEM WE WOULD JUST BE A LUMP
WHAT VITAL ORGANS DOES THE SKELETAL SYS PROTECT BRAIN, SPINAL CORD,HEART AND LUNGS
WHAT IS LOCOMOTION MOVEMENT
THE SKELETAL SYS ASSISTS IN BODY MOVEMENT BY PROVIDING ATTACHMENTS FOR MUSCLES THAT PULL ON THE BONES THAT ACT AS LEVERS
WHERE DOES HEMATOPOIESIS OCCUR IN THE SKELETAL SYS BONE MARROW
WHAT DO THE BONES STORE FAT, MINERAL SALTS, ESP PHOSPHORUS (P) AND CALCIUM (Ca)
WHAT IS LOCATED AT THE ENDS OF THE LONG BONES CANCELLOUS (SPONGY) BONE
AT THE ENDS OF THE LONG BONES ARE MESHWORK OF INTERCONNECTING SECTIONS CALLED CANCELLOUS (SPONGY) BONE
THE SPACES WITHIN THE CANCELLOUS BONES ARE FILLED WITH RED BONE MARROW
RED BONE MARROW ARE FOUND IN LARGER QUANTITIES IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL), VEREBRAE (BACKBONE), STERNUM (BREAST BONE), PELVIC BONE (ILIUM, ISCHIUM, PUBIS)
WHAT IS A COMMON SITE FOR BONE MARROW EXTRACTION ILIAC CREST
WHAT IS HEMATOPOREUS CREATION OF BLOOD
YELLOW BONE MARROW IS FOUND IN THE MEDULLARY CAVITY OF THE SHAFTS OF THE LONG BONES
YELLOW BONE MARROW IS PRIMARILY MADE UP OF FAT CELLS (ADIPOSE TISSUE)
THE SHAFT OF THE LONG BONE IS CALLED DIAPHYSIS
WHAT ARE THE TWO EXTREMITIES OF THE LONG BONES CALLED EPIPHYSES (2 ENDS)
THE SECTIONS OF THE LONG BONES THAT GROW VERTICALLY ARE CALLED EPIPHYSES (GROWTH PLATES)
THE FIBROVASCULAR MEMBRANE THAT COVERS A BONE IS CALLED PERIOSTEUM (OUTER COVERING)
ALL BONES ARE SURROUNDED BY WHAT MEMBRANE PERIOSTEUM
THE TISSUE FOUND BETWEEN ARTICULATING BONES THAT ACT AS A SHOCK ABSORBER AND REDUCES FRICTION IS CALLED CARTILAGE
WHAT DOES ARTICULATING MEAN MOVE
CARTILAGE CAN ALSO BE REFFERED TO AS A MENISCUS
WHAT DOES A MENISCUS DO REDUCE FRICTION - SHOCK ABSORBER
CARTILAGE IS AKA MENISCUS
THE TISSUE THAT BINDS ARTICULATING BONES TOGETHER AND ALLOWS A CERTAIN ROM IS CALLED LIGAMENTS
ROM AKA RANGE OF MOTION
TISSUE THAT CONNECTS MUSCLES TO BONES ARE CALLED TENDONS
WHICH TISSUE DOES NOT STRETCH AND IS TUFF TENDONS
WHAT IS THE FORMATION OF BONE CALLED OSSIFICATION
OSSIFICATION IS THE FORMATION OF BONE
BONE CELLS ARE CALLED OSTEOCYTES
OSTEOCYTES ARE BONE CELLS
WHAT ARE THE CLASSIFICATIONS FOR OSTEOCYTES OSTEOBLASTS AND OSTEOCLASTS
WHAT CLASSIFICATION OF OSTEOCYTES WILL BUILD BONE OSTEOBLASTS
WHAT CLASSIFICATION OF OSTEOCYTES WILL REMOVE BONE (REABSORB) OSTEOCLASTS
WHAT IS REQUIRED TO STIMULATE OSTEOBLASTS MOVEMENT
OSTEOCLAST NEED WHAT TO FUNCTION NOTHING
BONES WHOSE LENGTH EXCEED THEIR WIDTH ARE CALLED LONG BONES
LONG BONES INCLUDE CLAVICLE, HUMERUS, RADIUS, ULNA, FEMUR, TIBIA, FIBULA, MEDACARPALS, MEDATARSALS, PHALANGES
CLAVICLE AKA COLLAR BONE
HUMERUS AKA SUPERIOR ARM BONE
RADIUS LATERAL INFERIOR ARM BONE
ULNA MEDIAL INFERIOR ARM BONE
FEMUR THIGH - SUPERIOR LEG
WHAT BONE IS THE LARAGEST BONE IN THE BODY FEMUR
TIBIA AKA ANTERIOR INFERIOR LEG BONE - SHIN
FIBULA AKA POSTERIOR INFERIOR LEG BONE
MEDACARPALS AKA HANDBONES
MEDATARSALS AKA FOOTBONES
PHALANGES AKA FINGERS AND TOES
BONES WITHOUT A SHAFT ARE CALLED SHORT BONES
SHORT BONES ARE CARPALS, TARSALS
CARPALS ARE FOUND IN THE WRIST
CARPALS ARE ARRANGED IN HOW MANY ROWS TWO
HOW MANY CARPALS ARE IN EACH ROW IN THE WRIST 4 EACH
THE PROXIMINAL ROW OF CARPALS ARE PISIFORM, TRIQUETRIUM, LUNATE, SCAPHOID
THE DISTAL ROW OF CARPALS ARE HAMATE, CAPITATE, TRAPEZOID, TRAPEZIUM
TARSALS AKA ANKEL BONES (SHORT BONES)
CARPALS AKA WRIST BONE
TARSALS IN THE HINDFOOT OF THE ANKLE ARE CALCANEUS, TALUS, NAVICULAR, CUBOID
CALCANEUS AKA HEEL
TARSALS IN THE FOREFOOT OF THE ANKLE ARE MEDIAL OR 1ST CUNEIFORM, INTERMEDIATE OR 2ND CUNEIFORM, LATERAL OR 3RD CUNEIFORM
THE PLURAL OF CALCANEUS CALCANEIUM
THE RADIUS RUNS ALONG THE SIDE OF THE THUMB
EXAMPLES OF FLAT BONES INCLUDE CRANIUM, STERNUM, RIBS, SCAPULA, PELVIC, PATELLA
CRANIUM AKA SKULL
2 PARIETAL BONES ARE FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
PARIETAL BONES AKA CRANIAL ROOF
FRONTAL BONE IS FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
FRONTAL BONE AKA FOREHEAD
TEMPORAL BONES ARE FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL)
TEMPORAL BONES AKA TEMPLES
OCCIPITAL BONE IS FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
WHAT BONE IS POSTERIOR AND BASE OF THE CRANIUM OCCIPITAL
ZYGOMATIC BONES ARE FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
ZYGOMATIC BONES AKA CHEEK BONES
MAXILLA BONE IS FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
MAXILLA BONE AKA SUPERIOR JAW (FIXED, DOES NOT MOVE)
MANDIBLE BONE IS FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
MANDIBLE BONE AKA INFERIOR JAW (MOVES)
NASAL BONE FORMS BRIDGE OF THE NOSE
NASAL BONE IS FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
DEPRESSION WHERE EYES ARE FOUND ARE CALLED ORBITS AKA EYE SOCKETS
EYE SOCKETS ARE FOUND IN THE CRANIUM (SKULL, FLAT BONE)
STERNUM AKA BREAST BONE (FLAT BONE)
HOW MANY SECTIONS DOES THE STERNUM (FLAT BONE) HAVE THREE
THE SUPERIOR PORTION OF THE STERNUM (FLAT BONE) IS CALLED MANUBRIUM AKA HANDLE
THE MEDIAL SECTION OF THE STERNUM (FLAT BONE) IS CALLED GLADIOLUS AKA BLADE
THE INFERIOR SECTION OF THE STERNUM (FLAT BONE) IS CALLED XIPHOID PROCESS AKA TIP
RIBS (FLAT BONE)HAVE HOW MANY PAIRS 12 PAIRS
1-7 RIBS (FLAT BONES) ARE CALLED VERTEBRALSTERNAL
VERTEBRALSTERNAL RIBS (FLAT BONES) START AT THE VERTEBRA AND CONNECT TO THE STERNUM (FLAT BONE)
8-12 RIBS (FLAT RIBS) ARE CALLED FALSE RIBS AKA VERTEBROCHONDIAL
8-12 RIBS (FLAT RIBS) ARE CALLED VERTEBROCHONDIAL RIBS BECAUSE THEY CONNECT TO CARTILAGE OF ANOTHER RIB (AT THE STERNUM)
13 & 14 RIBS ARE CALLED FLOATING RIBS (JUST CONNECT AT THE VERTEBRAE)
SCAPULA (FLAT BONE) AKA SHOULDER BONE AKA BLADE
THE LATERAL END OF THE SHOULDER BONE IS THE ACROMION PROCESS
THE MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE ARM ARE ATTACHED TO THE SCAPULA AT THE CORCOID PROCESS (PROTRUDES)
BONES THAT PROTRUDE ARE CALLED PROCESSES
THE HEAD OF THE HUMERUS (SUPERIOR ARM) ARTICULATES WITH THE GLENOID FOSSA
FOSSA AKA INDENTATION
PELVIC (FLAT BONE) AKA ILIA, ISCHIA, PUBIS (SINGULAR) ISIUM, ISCHIUM, PUBIS (PLURAL)
PATELLA (FLAT BONE) AKA KNEE CAP
VERTEBRAE CONSISTS OF VERTEBRAL BODY, VERTEBRAL (NEURAL) FORAMEN, SPINOUS PROCESS, TRANSVERSE PROCESS, LAMINA, PEDICULES
IN THE SPINAL COLUMN, A THICK DISK SHAPED ANTERIOR PORTION, PIERCED WITH NUMEROUS SMALL HOLES FOR NERVES AND BLOOD VESSELS THAT NOURISH THE BONE IS CALLED THE VERTEBRAL BODY
IN THE SPINAL COLUMN, THE PASSAGEWAY FOR THE SPINAL CORD IS CALLED THE VERTEBRAL FORAMEN
IN THE SPINAL COLUMN, THE POSTERIOR PROJECTIONS ARE CALLED SPINOUS PROCESS
IN THE SPINAL COLUMN, TWO LATERAL PROJECTS (OFF TO THE SIDE) ARE CALLED TRANSVERSE PROCESS
THE POSTERIOR WALL OF THE VERTEBRAL ARCH IS CALLED THE LAMINA
THE SECTIONS THAT CONNECT THE VERTEBRAL BODY TO THE VERTEBRAL ARCH AND ARE NOTCHED TO ALLOW PASSAGEWAY FOR THE SPINAL NERVES ARE CALLED PEDICULES
THE SURFACE OF ANY TYPICAL BONE WILL EXHIBIT BONE MARKINGS LIKE PROJECTIONS AND DEPRESSIONS
BONE MARKINGS OF PROJECTIONS ARE CALLED PROCESSES
BONE MARKINGS OF DEPRESSIONS IN THE BONES ARE CALLED FOSSA OR FOSSAE
ANY SHARP SLENDER PROJECTION (BONE MARKING) IS REFERRED TO AS A SPINE
A LARGE PROMINENCE (BONE MARKING) IS USUALLY SERVING FOR THE ATTACHMENT OF MUSCLES OR LIGAMENTS IS CALLED TUBEROSITY
A ROUNDED OR KNUCKLE LIKE PROMINENCE (BONE MARKING) IS REFERRED TO AS A CONDYLE
A SMALL ROUND PROCESS IS REFERRED TO AS A TUBERCLE
A PROCESS SHAPED LIKE A PULLEY IS REFERRED TO AS A TROCHLEA
A VERY LARGER PROJECTION IS REFERRED TO AS A TROCHANTER
THE TERM TUBERCLE IS ALSO USED FOR A DISEASE CALLED TB
Created by: Marie Freda