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Planning Timeline 1

AICP 2011 Timeline of American Planning History prior to 1900

William Penn lays out the City of Philadelphia in a grid pattern with five public squares to serve the populace in his “holy experiment” Philadelphia 1682
Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest.The rectangular survey has been called "the largest single act of national planning in our history and the most significant in terms of continuing impact on the body politic" (Daniel Elazar). Ordinance of 1785
Alexander Hamilton argues for protective tariffs for manufacturing industry as a means of promoting industrial development in the young republic. Report on Manufactures 1791
In a speech before Congress, Henry Clay proposes a plan to allocate federal funds to promote the development of the national economy by combining tariffs with internal improvements, such as roads, canals and other waterways. The American System 1818
This artificial waterway connected the northeastern states with the newly settled areas of what was then the West, facilitating the economic development of both regions. Erie Canal 1825
Terminates in Vandalia, Illinois. Begun in 1811 in Cumberland, Maryland, it helps open the Ohio Valley to settlers. National Road 1839
First "model tenement" built in Manhattan. New York 1855
Opened the lands of the Public Domain to settlers for a nominal fee and five years residence. Homestead Act 1862
Congress authorizes land grants from the Public Domain to the states. Proceeds from the sale were to be used to found colleges offering instruction in agriculture, engineering, and other practical arts. Morrill Act 1862
Mounts a campaign to raise housing and sanitary standards. New York Council of Hygiene of the Citizens Association 1864
Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux begin the planning of a planned suburban community stressing rural as opposed to urban amenities. Riverside, IL 1868
The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads meet at Promontory Point, Utah, on May 10. First transcontinental railroad 1869
John Wesley Powell report that includes a proposed regional plan that would both foster settlement of the arid west and conserve scarce water resources. Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States 1878
In this influential book Henry George presents an argument for diminishing extremes of national wealth and poverty by means of a single tax (on land) that would capture the "unearned increment" of national development for public uses. Progress and Poverty 1879
A form of multifamily housing widely built in New York until the end of the century and notorious for the poor living conditions it imposed on its denizens (lack of light, air, space). Dumbbell tenement 1879
Established to survey and classify all Public Domain lands. U.S. Geological Survey 1879
Model industrial town built by George Pullman. Pullman, IL 1880-1884
the US Supreme Court ruled that the courts have the duty to strike down local laws that do not have a real or substantial relation to the police power: to protect the health, safety, welfare, and morals of the community. Mugler v. Kansas 1887
Published, by Jacob Riis; a powerful stimulus to housing and neighborhood reform. How the Other Half Lives 1890
gave President power to create forest preserves by proclamation. General Land Law Revision Act 1891
founded to promote the protection and preservation of the natural environment. John Muir, Scottish-American naturalist, and a major figure in the history of American environmentalism, was the leading founder. Sierra Club 1892
In Chicago, commemorating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World. A source of the City Beautiful Movement and of the urban planning profession. Columbian Exposition 1893
The first significant legal case concerning historic preservation. The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the acquisition of the national battlefield at Gettysburg served a valid public purpose. United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Co. 1896
Authorized some control by the Secretary of the Interior over the use and occupancy of the forest preserves. Forest Management Act 1897
Written by Ebenezer Howard; a source of the Garden City Movement. Reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of Tomorrow. Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform 1898
Becomes Chief Forester of the United States in the Department of Agriculture. From this position he publicizes the cause of forest conservation. Gifford Pinchot 1898
Created by: yoshebelle