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3 levels of study population, individual, elemental/molecular
5 roles of the musculoskeletal system support & protect, anchor, lever, production, storage
remodeling process of laying down depositing new bone in certain areas while at the same time resorbing, or removing bone in other areas
4 human variations skeletal and ental morphology, bone chemistry, and DNA
4 factors leading to skeletal variation ontogeny, sex, geographic or population based, individual or idiosyncratic
typology the practice of choosing one individual to characterize a whole species, without consideration of the normal range of variation
bone composition collagen (protein), mineral (hydroxyapatite)
4 mechanical forces of the bone compression, bending, shear, torsion
Wolf's Law bone is deposited where needed and resorbed where it is not
biomechanics study of forces and how they affect morphological and structural change in bone
cartilaginous joints synchondroses
fibrocartilage symphasis
fibrous joints syndesmoses, tibiofibular joint
cranial sutures synostosis
compact cortical, subchondral
spongy, cancellous trabecular
periosteum tough vascularized membrane which provides nutrients
endosteum osteogenic tissue, promote bone growth and contain bone-forming cells
2 histological types of bone immature, mature
immature woven, embryonic skeleton, rapid, pathologies, more osteocytes and coarsly bundled collagen fibers, non-oriented or random patterns
haversian system secondary osteon
concentric haversian lamellae lacunae
haversian canal Volkmann's Canals
osteoblast osteoid
osteocyte canaliculi
osteoclasts resorption
2 types of ossification intramembranous, endochondral
intramembranous ossification mesenchyme --> thick membane --> mineralize --> bone
endochondral ossification mesenchyme --> cartilage model --> penetration by blood vessels --> ossification at initial point of penetration (nutrient foramen) --> perichondrium --> appositional ossification along outside surface
mesenchyme embroynic connective tissue
perichondrium fibrous membrane of connective tissue covering the surface of cartilage except at the endings of joints
periosteal appositional growth endosteal resorption
growth plates epiphysial plates
lacrimal ethmoid
axial skeleton appendicular skeleton
orthograde pronograde
endocranial ectocranial
superficial close to the surface; the ribs are superficial to the heart
deep far from the surface; the dentine core of a tooth is deep to the enamel
subcutaneous just below the skin; the anteromedial surface of the tibia is subcutaneous
interproximal in contact w/ adjacent teeth in the same jaw; dental floss
incisal the biting or occlusal edge of the incisors; apple biting
mesial distal
lingual buccal
labial towards the lips; opposite of lingual; usually reserved for incosors and canines; revealed when ppl smiles
palmar plantar
flexion extension
abduction movement of a body part away from the sagittal plane; arm raised to the side from standard anatomical position; spreading the digits
adduction movement of body part toward sagittal plane; closing the digits; heels touching together
circumduction combination of abduction, adduction, flexion and extension; appendage movement in cone-shaped path; waving on
opposition motion in which body parts are brought together; thumb grasp
rotation motion on an axis
pronation rotary motion of the forearm that turns the palm from anteriorly facing (thumb lateral) to posteriorly facing; typing
supination rotary motion of the forarm that turns the palm to thumb lateral position; pan handlers
process a bony prominence; mastoid process
eminence a bony projection, not as prominent as a process
spine longer, thinner, sharper process than an eminence
tuberosity large usually rugose (roughened) eminence of varable shape, often a site of tendon or ligament attachment
tubercle small, sually rugose eminence
condyle rounded articular process
epicondyle nonarticular projection adjacent to a condyle
torus a bony thickening
ridge a linear bony elevation, often roughened
crest a prominent, usually sharp and thin ridge of bone, often formed between adjacent muscle masses
line a raised surface, not as thick as a torus or as sharp as a crest
fossa a depressed area; usually broad and shallow
fovea a pitlike, depressed area; usually smallerthan a fossa
groove a long pit or furrow
suture where adjacent bones of the skull articulate
foramen an opening through a bone
meatus a short canal
skull entire framework of head
cranium skull w/out mandible
calvaria cranium w/out splanchnocranium
calotte calvaria w/out base
splanchnocranium facial skeleton
neurocranium braincase
anterior cranial fossae houses frontal lobes
middle cranial fossae houses temporal lobes
posterior cranial fossae houses cerebellum brain
volmar maxilla, palatine
ethmoid frontal, maxilla, palatine, vomer, iferior nasal concha
lacrimal frontal, maxilla, inferior nasal concha, thmoid
nasal frontal, maxilla, thmoid
zygomatic frontal, temporal, maxilla
sphenoid no articulation with inferior nasal concha, lacrimal, nasal and sometimes maxilla
sutures (6) sagittal, coronal, lambdoidal, squamosal, zygomaticomaxillary, sphenooccipital synchondrosis/basilar suture
Frankfurt Horizontal bottom of the left orbit and top of the external auditory meatus
6 Standard Perspectives norma verticalis, basilaris, frontalis, occipitalis, lateralis (2)
prothion midline pt at the most anterior pt on the alveolar process of the masillae
nasion midline pt where the two nasal bones and the frontal intersect
glabella most anterior midline point on the frontal bone, usually above the frontonasal suture
opisthocranion an instrumentally determined pt at the rear of the cranium; defined as the midline ectocranial point at the farthest chord length from the glabella
opisthion midline pt at the poserior margin of rhte foramen magnum
basion midline pt on the anterior margin of the foramen magnum
frontal (7) zygomatic process, superciliary arches, supraorbital notch, supraorbital margin, frontal crest, sagittal sulcus, metopic suture
parietal (4) (!) sagittal sulcus, meningeal grooves, arachnoid/granular foveae, transverse/sigmoid sulcus
arachnoid foveae granular foveae
transverse sulcus sigmoid sulcus
temporal (6) (!) mastoid process, zygomatic process, external auditory meatus, squama, petrous pyramid, madibular/flenoid fossa
madibular fossa glenoid fossa
occipital (7) foramen magnum, external occipital protuberance, occipital condyles, inferior and superior nuchal lines, transverse sulcus, sagittal sulcus, occipital crest
auditory ossicles (3) malleus/hammer, incus/anvil, stapes/stirrup
malleus hammer
incus anvil
stapes stirrup
maxillae (4) (!) alveolar process, anterior nasal spine, nasoalveolar clivus, frontal process
palitine (!) posterior nasal spine
vomer divides nasal cavity
nasal conchae articulates w/: maxillae, palatines, ethmoid, lacrimals
ethmoid (2) cribriform plate, crista gala
cribriform plate roofs the nasal cavities; perforated by tiny foramina
crista gala a perpendicular projection of the ethmoid's cribriform plate into the endocranial cavity
zygomatic (2) (!) frontal process, temporal process
sphenoid (3) body, greater wings, sella turcica
sella turcica "turkish saddle"; located endoranially, posterior and inferior to the optic canals, atop the body of the sphenoid, decorated by the 4 clinoid processes
mandible (7) corpus, ramus, mandibular condyles, coronoid process, mental foramen, mental protuberance, mandibular foramen
foramina (4) foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, hypoglossal canals, incisive foramen
occlusal apical
ameloblasts amelogenesis
odontoblasts odontogenesis
cementum a bonelike tissue that covers the external surface of tooth roots
apical foramen the opening at each root apex, or tip, through which nerve fiber and vessels pass from the alveolar region to the pulp cavity
CEJ cervicoenamel junction
DEJ dentinoenamel junction
upper cusps protocone, paracone, hypocone, metacone
lower cusps protoconid, metaconid, hypoconid, entoconid, hypoconulid
trigon trigonid
talon talonid
T1 1 superior costal facet, 1 inferior demefacet
T10 2 costal facets, 1 on body 1 on transverse process
T11,12 1 costal facet on body only
lumbar pattern of articular facets superior (concave posteromedially); inferior (convex anterolateral)
sternum (2) corpus sterni, manubrium
corpus sterni (2) costal notches, sternal foramen
manubrium (2) clavicular notch, jugular notch
scapula scapular spine, acromion process, greater scapular notch, scapular neck, inferior angle, lateraal border, vetebral vorder, glenoid fossa, coracoid process
scapular spine deltoideus
acromion process trapezius
clavicle peectoralis major, deltoideus, trapezius, sternal end, acromion end
true/sternal ribs 1-7
false/asternal ribs 8-10
floating ribs 11-12
longest rib 7
costal grooves inferior edge, most prominant in 5-7
rib head, neck, tubercle
unfaceted rib heads 1, 10-12
Created by: jucy416