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GE 258 CH 5

QuestionAnswer
Body temperature regulation is accomplished by: dilation (cooling) and contriction (warming) of dermal vessels
Metabolic function of the Integumentary System: Synthesis of vitamin D in dermal blood vessels
Excretion of the Integumentary system involves: limited amounts of nitrogenous waste are eliminated through sweat
Three major region of the skin epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
outermost superficial region of the skin epidermis
middle region of the skin dermis
deepest region (superficial fascia) of the skin hypodermis
region of the skin composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of four distinct cells types and four or five layers epidermis
cell types of the epidermis skin include keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans' cell
cell type of the epidermis that produce the fibrous protein keratin keratinocytes
cell type of the epidermis that produce the brown pigment melanin melanocyte
cell type of the epidermis that is the epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune system Langerhan' cells
cell type of the epidermis that funtion as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings Merkel cells
Layers of the epidermis include: superficial to deep stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratus spinosum, stratum basale
layer of the epidermis that is the deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the dermis stratum basale (basal layer)
layer of the epidermis that consist of a single row of the youngest keratinocytes stratum basale (basal layer)
layer of the epidermis in which cells undergo rapid division stratum basale (basal layer)
layer of the epidermis where cells contain a web-like system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes stratum spinosum (prickly layer)
layer of the epidermis that contain an abundant layer of melanin granules and Langerhans' cells stratum spinosum (prickly layer)
layer of the epidermis that is thin; three to five cells layers in which drastic changes in keratinocyte appearance occurs stratum granulosum (granular layer)
layer of the epidermis that accumulate keratohyaline and lamellated granules in the cells startum granulosum (granular layer)
layer of the epidermis that is thin, transparent band superficial to the stratum granulosum stratum lucidum (clear layer)
layer of the epidermis that consist of few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes startum lucidum (clear layer)
layer of the epidermis that is present only in thick skin startum lucidum (clear layer)
layer of the epidermis that is the outermost layer of keratinized cells stratum corneum (horny layer)
layer of the epidermis that accounts for three quarters of the epidermal thickness stratum corneum (horny layer)
layer of the epidermis that function in waterpoofing and protecting stratum corneum (horny layer)
layer of the skin that is the second major skin region containing strong, flexible connective tissue dermis
layer of the skin in which cell types include fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally mast cells and white blood cells dermis
layer of the skin that composes of two layers-papillary and reticular dermis
the two layers of the dermis is papillary and reticular
layer of the dermis that contains areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers papillary layer
layer of the dermis that its superior surface conatins peg-like projections called dermal papillae papillary layer
layer of the dermis that has dermal papillae containing capillary loops, Meissner's corpuscles, and free nerve endings papillary layer
layer of the dermis that has meissner's corpuscles papillary layer
mechanoreceptor specialized for light touch meissner's corpuscles
layer of the dermis that accounts for approx. 80% of the thickness of the skin reticular layer
layer of the dermis that contain collagen fibers adding strength and resiliency to the skin reticular layer
results from extreme stretching of the skin stretch marks
silvery white scars that result from dermal tearing striae
layer of the skin that is the subcutaneous layer deep to the skin hypodermis
layer of the skin that compose of adipose and areolar connective tissue hypodermis
three pigments contribute to skin color melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
skin pigment that is yellow to reddis-brown to black pigment, responsible for dark skin colors melanin
result from local accumulation of _______ producing freckles and pigmented moles melanin
skin pigment that is yellow to orange pigment, most obvious in palms and soles of the feet carotene
reddish pigment responsible for the pinkish hue of the skin hemoglobin
different types of _____ prevent overheating of the body sweat glands (sudoriferous)
secrete cerumen and milk sweat glands (sudoriferous)
gland found in palms, soles of the feet and forehead eccrine sweat gland
most numerous type of sweat gland eccrine sweat gland
gland found in axillary and anogenital areas apocrine sweat gland
modified apocrine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerument ceruminous gland
specialized sweat glands that secrete milk mammary gland
simple alveolar gland found all over the body sebaceous gland
gland that soften skin when stimulated by hormones sebaceous gland
gland that secrete an oily secretion called sebum sebaceous gland
filamentous stands of dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles hair
contain harden keratin which is tougher and more durable than soft keratin of the skin hair
made up of the shaft projecting from the skin, and the root embedded in the skin hair
consist of a core, called the medulla, a cortex and an outermost cuticle hair
pigmented by melanocytes at the base hair
type of hair that is pale, fine body hair found in children and the adult female vellus
type of hair that is coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic region terminal
hair thinning in both sexes alopecia
scale-like midification of the epidermis on the distal, dorsal surface of fingers and toes nails
a crucial risk factor for nonmelanoma skin cancers is the disabling of the _____ gene p53
Three major types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma
least malignant and most common skin cancer basal cell carcinoma
stratum basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and hypodermis basal cell carcinoma
slow growing and do not often metastasize basal cell carcinoma
arises from keratinocytes of startum spinosum squamous cells carcinoma
arise most often on scalp, ears, and lower lip squamous cells carcinoma
grows rapidly and metasitasizes if no removed squamous cell carcinoma
highly metastatic type of cancer melanoma
_____ degree of burn in which only the epidermis is damaged First
_____ degree of burn in which symptoms include localized redness, swelling, and pain First
_____ degree of burn in which epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged Second
_____ degree of burn in which symptoms include mimic of first degree burns, but blisters appear Second
_____ degree of burn in which entire thickness of the skin is damaged Third
_____ degree of burn in which symptoms include burned area appears gray-white, cherry red, or black, there is no initial edema or pain Third
Burn is considered critical if over 25% of body has second-degree burn
Burn is considered critical if over 10% of body has third-degree burn
primary cause of death in burn victims are skin infection
Created by: evang