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HHP 4/13


transports excess tissue fluid to bloodstream lymphatic system
lymphatic system absorbs fats
helps defend body against disease causing agents lymphatic system
lymphatic pathways capillaries vessels trunks/collecting ducts
lymphatic capillaries microscopic receive lymph through own thin walls
closed-ended tubes extend into interstitial spaces lymphatic capillaries
lymphatic vessels similar to veins, only thinner & valves prevent backflow of lymph
lead to lymph nodes & merge into lymphatic trunk larger lymphatic vessels
lymphatic collecting duct join subclavian veins
lymphatic trunks lead to 2 collecting ducts
thoracic & right lymphatic ducts 2 collecting ducts of lymphatic trunks
lymph physiology returns protein molecules to bloodstream & transports foreign particles to lymph nodes
lymph formation increased pressure in interstitial space force tissue fluid into lymphatic capillaries fluid=lymph
tissue fluid origin blood plasma
lacks large proteins small proteins filtered out blood capillaries to interstitial spaces tissue fluid
as protein concentration of tissue fluid increases, colloid osmotic pressure increases tissue fluid formation
lymph under low pressure no flow ready w/o external aid
lymph movement contraction of skeletal muscles
contraction of smooth muscle in walls of large lymphatic trunks lymph movement
lymph movement low pressure in thorax by breathing movements
lymph node structure subdivided into nodules
nodules contain masses of lymphocytes & macrophages
lymph node location aggregate in groups/chains along paths of larger lymphatic vessels
lymph node physiology filter harmful foreign particles from lymph
center for production of lymphocytes & contain phagocytic cells lymph node physiology
thymus lymphatic tissue subdivided into lobules
slowly shrinks after puberty thymus
some lymphocytes leave ____ & provide immunity thymus
spleen resembles large lymph node subdivided into lobules
spaces within splenic lobules are filled with ____ blood
contains many macrophages, filter foreign particles & damaged red blood cells from blood spleen
body defenses against infection body has innate & adaptive defenses against infection
innate nonspecific defenses species resistance mechanical & chemical barriers natural killer cells inflammation phagocytosis fever
fever high body temp= decrease in blood iron level & increase in phagocytic activity hamper infection
neutorphils & monocytes most active phagocytes in blood
monocytes give rise to macrophages, remain fixed in tissues
phagocytic cells association linings of blood vessels in bone marrow liver, spleen, lungs, lymph nodes
phagocytes remove foreign particles from tissue & body fluids
inflammation tissue response to injury/infection
localized redness,swelling,heat,pain inflammation
chemicals released by damaged tissue attract ____ to site WBC
connective tissue forms sac around injured tissue & block spread of ____ pathogens
natural killer cells secrete perforins
perforins destroy cancer cells & cells infected w/ viruses
species resistance each species is resistant to certain diseases that affect other species
mechanical barriers block entrance of pathogens
skin & mucous membranes mechanical barriers
activation of complement proteins in plasma stimulate inflammation attract phagocytes enhance phagocytosis
enzymes in gastric juice & tears kill ____ pathogens
interferons chemical barrier
stimulate unifected cells to synthesize antiviral proteins stimulating phagocytosis interferons
interferons block proliferation of viruses
enhance activity of cells that help resist infections interferons
stifle tumor growth interferons
adaptive specific defenses/immunity antigens lymphocyte T cells-cellular immune response B cells-humoral immune response antibody immune responses immunity allergic reactions transplantation tissue rejection autoimmunity
before birth, body cells inventory ___ & other large molecules self proteins
lymphocytes self antigens after inventory, _____ develop receptors allow differentiation of nonself & ____
nonself antigens combine w/ T&B cell surface receptors & stimulate these cells to cause immune reaction
haptens small molecules can combine w/ larger ones, =antigenic
Created by: virg



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