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HHP 4-10-11

CHAPTER 13 CARDIOVASULAR SYSTEM

QuestionAnswer
cardiovascular system includes heart,arteries,veins,capillaries
pericardium encloses heart & proximal ends of large blood vessels thats its attached
layers of cardiac wall epicardium myocardium endocardium
epicardium outer protection from friction connective tissue beneath epithelium
myocardium thick middle layer, cardiac muscle tissue pumps blood out of heart chambers
endocardium inner layer, epithelium & connective tissue contain many elastic & collagenous fibers
blood flows through vena cavae & coronary sinus into right atrium through _, to right ventricle through pulmonary valve to pulmonary trunk into right & left _ to lungs, through pulmonary veins into _ through mitral valve to _ & through _ to aorta. tricuspid valve alveoli left atrium left ventricle aortic valve
vessels through blood flow from aorta to myocardium & back to right atrium coronary arteries cardiac veins coronary sinus
cardiac cycle all events that take place in 1 complete heart beat
S-A node atrial syncytium junctional fibers
A-V node A-V bundle bundle branches purkinje fibers ventricular sncytium
normal ECG pattern PQRST
P wave depolarization of atria
QRS wave depolarization of ventricles
T wave repolarization of ventricles
nervous system regulates cardiac cycle parasymphatethic & sympathetic nerve fibers control S-A node auntonomic NS
artery strong, elastic vessels adapted carrying blood away from heart under high pressure
arterioles vessels subdivide progressive thinner tubes, eventually finer branched
artery>arterioles artery branches into arterioles
control of vasoconstriction impulses on vasomotor fibers stimulate smooth muscles to contract, reducing diameter of vessel
control of vasodilation vasomotor impulses inhibited, muscle fibers relax, diameter of vessel increases
structure of capillary smallest diameter blood vessels, connecting smallest arterioles & venules
capillary physiology substances in blood are excahnged for substances in tissue fluid surrounding body cells
diffusion between blood and tissue depends on concentration gradient, filtration forces molecules through w/ hydrostatic pressure
why H2O & dissolved substances leave arteriolar end of capillary & enter venular end colloid osmotic pressure unchanged, blood pressure decreased, reabsorption predominates
vein merged from a venule, carries blood back to atria, follows path of arteries
venule microscopic vessels continued from capillaries
arterial blood pressure reaches its maximum when the ventricles contract systolic pressure
factors that influence blood pressure blood volume strength of hear contractions heart rate blood viscosity peripheral resistance venous blood flow
blood volume larger volume= more pressure, hemorrhage causes pressure to drop rapidly
strength of heart contractions stronger heart beat increases blood pressure
heart rate too fast= left ventricle wont have time to fill & will squeeze out much less blood to aorta
blood viscosity thicker blood= more pressure
peripheral resistance larger lumen of vessel= faster flow
venous blood flow contracting skeletal muscles little pressure breathing movements vasoconstriction
sympathetic reflexes in smooth muscle of vessels vasoconstriction
major factors that promote flow of venous blood skeletal muscle contraction breathing arterial blood pressure
pulmonary system 12% total blood right heart>lungs>left heart O2 poor blood from heart>lungs O2 rich blood back to heart
systematic system left heart>body>right heart O2 rich blood to body cells O2 poor blood back to heart
aorta largest diameter artery in body
aorta principal branches coronary brachiocephalic left common carotid left subclavian arteries descending aorta
descending aorta thoracic & abdominal group
simple squamous 1 layer, square epithelial tissue
smooth muscle non striated, autonomic NS
cardiac muscle striated, heart
arteries blood vessel from heart to rest body
veins vessel from body to the heart
capillaries tiny blood vessel, beginning of vein
pulmonary lungs
systemic body system
tunica tissue forming layer/covering of organ/part tissue layers of blood vessel wall
pulse throbbing of arteries, by successive contractions of heart
blood pressure pressure by blood inner walls of arteries, elasticity/diameter of vessels and force of heartbeat
card- heart
cusps points
phleb- vein
cardiovascular system physiology pumps blood closed system 1 RBC completes pathway every minute maintain homeostasis of body fluids
structure of heart coverings wall chambers/valves tissue
size of heart 5.5"x3.5"
listen to heartbeat between 5&6th ribs inferior to midpoint of left clavicle
heart location between lungs in lower portion of mediastinum apex lies on diaphragm pointing left
heart coverings pericardium
pericardial sac pericardium
heart wall epicardium myocardium endocardium
heart chamber & valves atria ventricles intervenricular septum tricuspid valve bicuspid valve pulmonary semilunar valve aortic semilunar valve
atria receiving
discharging ventricles
separates 2 halves interventricular septum
mitral bicuspid
heart tissue intercalated discks contain gap junctions desmosomes
gap junctions free movement of ions between cells
desmosomes joins cells together
Created by: virg