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GE 258 CH 3

material between plasma membrane and the necleus cytoplasm
largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars, and other solutes cytosol
metabolic machinery of the cell cytoplasmic organelles
chemical substances such as glycosomes, glycogen granules, and pigment glycosomes
provides most of the cell's ATP mitochondria
site of protein synthesis ribosomes
interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing cisternae Endoplasmic Reticulum
manufactures all secreted proteins Rough ER
catalyzes reactions in various organs of the body (detoxification of drugs) Smooth ER
functionsin modification, concentration, and packaging of proteins golgi apparatus
spherical membranous bags containing diegestive enzymes lysosomes
demolition crew lysosomes
memberanous sacs containing oxidases and catalases perioxisomes
detoxify harmful or toxics substances perioxisomes
neutralize dangerous free radicals perioxisomes
the "skeleton" of the cell cytoskeleton
consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments cytoskeleton
dynamic strands of the protein actin microfilaments
help form desmosomes (junctions between cell) intermediate filaments
dynamic, hollow tubes made of the spherical protein tubulin microtubules
determines the overall shape of the cell and distribution oforganelles microtubules
dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus responsible for the production of ribosomes nucleoli
composed of phingolipids and cholesterol lipid rafts
are concentrating plateforms for cell-signaling molecules lipid rafts
impermeable junction that encircles the cell tight junctions
anchoring junction scattered along the sides of the cells desmosome
a nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells gap junction
anchors cells to the extracellular matrix Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
assist in movement of cells past one another Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
diffues nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances simple
transport of glucose, amino acids, and ions facilitated diffusion
total concentration of solute particles in a solution osmolarity
how a solution affects cell colume tonicity
solutions with the same solute concentration as that of the cytosol isotonic
solutions having greater solute concentration than that of the cytosol hypertonic
solutions having lesser solute concentration that that of the cytosol hypotonic
____ is valuable and less avaliable K+
Sodium-Potassium Pump: Net ratio 3Na out of cell 2K into the cell
transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes vesicular transport
moves substance from the cell interior to the extracellular space exocytosis
enables large particles and macromolecules to enter the cell endocytosis
threadlike strands of DNA and histones chromatin
cell cycle contains ___ phases two
two phases of cell cycle 1. interphase 2. mitiotic phase
___ untwists the double helix and exposes complementary strands helicase
___ uses RNA primers to begin DNA synthesis replisome
___ continues fromt he primer and covalently adds complementary necleotides to the template DNA polymerase III
nuclear division Mitosis
division of the cytoplasm cytokinesis
phases of mitosis 1. propase 2. metaphase 3. anaphase 4. telophase
formed in late anaphse by contractile ring cleavage furrow
Created by: evang



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