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HHP 4-8-11

chapter 12 blood

erythr- red
leuko- white
thromb- clot
hem- red
hepat- liver
hem- blood
hepatic liver
hematopoises blood formation
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin carry O2
carbaminohemoglobin hemoglobin carry CO2
osmosis flow of water high to low concentration
agglutination clumping of RBC
antigens protein markers in cell membrane, stimulate antibody production
antigen make foreign material
antibodies kill foreign material
antibodies protein made by lymphocytes in response to stimulation of an antigen
blood physiology body temperture transportation homeostasis hemostasis immunity
blood body temperature maintenance
blood transportaion nutrients, gases, waste, hormones, heat
blood homeostasis maintenance & interstitial fluid balance
blood hemostasis stoppage of bleeding, clot formation
blood immunity protection against foreign invaders, general and specific
immunity carries WBC
whole blood 5 liters connective tissue 45% living cells 55% plasma
plasma serum
plasma in blood 55% pH 7.35-7.45
water in blood 92%
protein in blood most synthesized in liver albumins globulins fibrinogen
albumins 60%, function to maintain osmosis
globulins 36%, antibodies found here
fibrinogen 4%, coagulation, missing in serum
gases in blood O2, CO2
nutrients in blood glucose, amino acids, fatty acids
MPN substances contain N not proteins, waste, uric acid, BUN, creatine
in source blood in
out source waste out
fatty acids break down ketone bodies
carbs break down CO2
RBC break down bilirubin
RBC #1 job carry oxygen
hemoglobin red color due Fe
phils all have cytoplasmic granules
waste uric acid, BUN, creatine
RNA breakdown uric acid
BUN urea
BUN breakdown protein
creatine breakdown protein
electrolytes ions, Na, K, Cl
etc vitamins & hormones
living cells formed elements
formed elements 45%
RBC biconcave, 1 min o heart and back
RBC transports O2, oxyhemoglobin, felxible, protein
no nucleus hemoglobin heme (Fe) + globin
Fe + biliverdin bilirubin erythroprotein
RBC Vit B12, folic acid, GH, T4
T4 thyroxine
thyroxine produced in sternum, ribs & coxa
erythropetin distance athletes
WBC general & specific immunity
5 major WBC neutrophils eosinophils basophils monocytes lymphocytes
#1 neutrophils
#2 lymphocytes
#3 monocytes
#4 eosinophils
#5 basophils
light purple granules neutrophils
deep red granules eosinophils
deep purple granules
largest cell monocyte
specific immunity lymphocyte
phagocytosis of small particles neutrophils #1
allergies, parasite destruction eosinophils #4
parasite tapeworms, pinworms, hookworms
histamine promotes inflammation
heparin inhibits blood clotting
histamine & heparin basophils #5
phagocytosis of large particles, macrophages monocytes #3
T & B lymphocytes #2
produce antibodes B lymphocytes
platelets cytoplasmic fragments
thrombocytes platelets
platelets contain organelles
platelets do not contain nucleus
cell fragaments of cytoplasm of larger cells platelets
thrombocytes form platelet plugs
platelets release chemicals initiate clot formation
2 jobs in coagulation platelet plug chemical initiate clot formation
hand 2 hand combat to specific invader (AIDS helper) T lymphocyte
platelet plug stage I
coagulation stage II
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
positive feedback system hemostasis
Blood Vessel Spasm vasoconstriction blood vessel walls slowing blood flow
Platelet Plug Formation platelet adhesion
blood vessel spasm platelet plug>blood clot
blood clot platelet plug>blood vessel spasm
blood coagulation Ca required
BPB blood vessel spasm platelet plug blood clot
Boy Penis Boy blood vessel spasm platelet plug blood clot
PTFFC prothrombin thrombin fibrinogen fibrin clot
activator Ca
prothrombin>thrombin Ca activator
fibrinogen>fibrin Ca activator
place the free food close
tissue damage releases tissue thromboplastin
prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin
thrombin fragmenst fibrinogen to fibrin
fibrin long threads clot
blood groups 24+ different blood types presence or absence antigens antigens inherited
universal donors RBC & plasma
universal recipients RBC & plasma
ABO system antibodies and antigens found
type A,B,AB,O ABO system
Rh system D system
D system antigen and antibody involved
Rh D
D positive/negative
antigen protein marker
cells natural occuring A,B,AB,O
plasma antiB,antiA,O,antiA/antiB
universal donor for plasma TypeAB
universal donor for blood TypeO
typeAB can receive anyones blood
antiA/antiB can receive anyones plasma
typeA antiB
typeB antiA
typeAB open
typeO antiA/antiB
sickle cell disease & trait
thalassemia hereditary hemolytic anemia thin fragile RBC
leukemia myeloid/lymphoid
leukocytosis increase # WBC
leukopenia decrease # WBC
hemophilia lack of factor8/AIDS
von willebrand disease lack of factor9/christmas factor
blood transfusion reactions mismatched blood types
thrombosis(thrombus) stationary clot blood clot abnormally forming in vessel & stays put
embolism(embolus) clot on move clot dislodged & moving
purpura spontaneous bleeding from capillaries or small blood vessels into tissues
edema escaped plasma from blood vessels into interstitial spaces
hemolytic disease of the newborn(fetus) Rh factor
erthroblastosis fetalis Rh factor RhoGAM prevention
hypoxia>cyanotic bluish skin
jaundice yellow
blood connective tissue RBC WBC platelets suspended in liquid plasma extracellular matrix
transports substances between bodycells & external environment blood
blood helps maintain stable internal environment
blood separated into formed elements & liquid prtions
formed elements RBC
liquid plasma water,gases,nutrients,hormones,electrolytes & cellular wastes
blood volume varies body size,fluid,electrolyte balance,adipose tissue content
RBC concave discs w/ shapes increase surface area
contain hemoglobin, combine with oxygen red blood cells
red blood cell counts = # cells per microliter of blood 4-6 million cells determines oxygen carrying capacity of blood
used to diagnose & evaluate courses of certain diseases red blood cell counts
health # RBC remains stable
red bone marrow produces RBC
erythropoietin controls rate of RBC formation by negative feedback
hemoglobin synthesis requires iron
vitamin B12 & folic acid influences RBC production
macrophages in liver & spleen phagocytize damaged RBC
hemoglobin release biliverdin & bilirubin pigments
destruction of RBC hemoglobin molecules decompose & iron recycled
WBC develop from hemocytoblasts in red bone marrow
granulocytes neutrophils eosinophils basophils
agranulocytes monocytes & lymphocytes
neutrophils & monocytes phagocytize foreign particles
eosinophils kill parasites help control inflammation allergic reactions
basophils release heparin & histamine
heparin inhibits blood clotting
histamine increase blood flow to injured tissues
lymphocytes produce antibodies attack specific foreign substances
white blood cell counts 4,500-10,000 cells per microliter of blood
# WBC vary infections emotional disturbances excessive body fluid loss
differential WBC count indicates various types of leukocyte percentages
blood platelets fragments of giant cells
developed in red marrow in response to thrombpoietn blood platelets
normal platelet count 130,000-360,000 platelets per microliter of blood
platelets help close breaks in blood vessels
plasma transports gases & nutrients help regulate fluid electrolyte balance help stable pH
plasma proteins remain in blood/interstitail fluid energy source
3 major plasma protein albumin globulin fibrinogen
help maintain colloid osmotic pressure albumin
transport lipid fat-soluble vitamins antibodies that provide immunity globulin
functions in blood clotting fibrinogen
gases in plasma O,CO2,N
plasma nutrients simple sugars amino acids lipids
SPF (sugar protein fat) plasma nutrients
liver stores glucose as glycogen release glucose when blood glucose concentration fails
amino acids used to synthesize proteins deaminated for energy source
lipoproteins function in transport of lipids
nonprotein nitrogenous bases molecules contain nitrogen atoms
nonprotein nitrogenous substances amino acids urea uric acid
plasma electrolytes ions of sodium,k,Ca,Mg,Cl(chlorine),bicarbonate,PO(phosphate),SO(sulfate)
bicarbonate ions maintain osmotic pressure & pH of plasma
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
blood vessel spasm smooth muscles in blood vessel walls reflexly contract following injury
platelets release serotonin stimulate vasoconstriction help maintain vessel spasm
vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessels resulting from contraction of muscular wall of the vessels
platelet plug formation adhere to rough surfaces & exposed collagen
platelets adhere to each other at injury sites form platelet plugs in broken vessels
blood cotting most effective form of hemostasis
clot formation depends balance between factors that promote & inhibit clotting
coagulation basic event conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
biochemicals promote clotting prothrombin activator, prothrombin,calcium ions
thrombus abnormal blood clot in vessel
embolus clot or fragment of clot moves in vessel
blood can be typed based on cell surface antigens
agglutination clumping RBC, following transfusion reaction
RBC membrane contain specific antigens
blood plasma contain antibodies against certain antigens
ABO blood group blood grouped to presence/absence of antigensA/B
mixing RBC that contain an antigen w/ plasma containing corresponding antibody adverse transfusion reaction
Rh antigen present on RBC membranes of Rh positive blood
Rh antigen absent in Rh-negative blood
mixing Rh-positive RBC w/ plasma containing anti-Rh antibodies agglutinates the positive cells
anti-Rh antibodies in maternal blood may cross placental tissues react w/ RBC of Rh-positive fetus
major functions of blood include nutrient,hormone,oxygen,waste transport,help maintain stability of interstitial fluid, heat distribution
formed elements in blood are white blood cells(leukocytes), red blood cells(erythrocytes) and platelets(thrombocytes)
the liquid portion of blood plasma
describe a red blood cell biconcave discs
contrast oxyhemoglobin & deoxyhemoglobin oxy-bright red, rich in oxygen deoxy-dark blue, released oxygen
dietary factors affecting RBC production vitamin B12,folic acid,iron
5 leukocytes types neutrophils,eosinophils,basophils,monocytes,lymphocytes
NEBML (Never Eat Bowel Movement Later) neutrophils esinophils basophils monocytes lymphocytes
neurto & mono phagocytize foreign particles
eisoino kill parasites,control inflammation,llergic reactions
baso release heparin/histamine
lymph produce antibodies that attack specific foreign substances
platelets/thrombocytes fragments of megakarocytes that function in hormone thrombopoietin
the most abundant component of plasma 92% water
3 types of plasma proteins fibrinogen,albumin,globulin
FGA (Fuck4 Good36 Ass60) fibrinogen,albumin,globulin
albumins 60% function to maintain osmosis
globulins 36% antibodies found here
fibrinogen 4% coagulation missing in serum
nutrients & gases in plasma vitamins & hormones: amino acids,simple sugars,nucleotides,lipids N2,O2,CO2
nonprotein nitrogenous substances molecules contain nitrogen atoms but mot proteins
in plasma nonprotein nitrogenous substances present amino acids,urea,uric acid
most abundant plasma electrolytes sodium & chloride ions NaCl
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
explain how blood vessel spasm is stimulated following an injury smooth muscles in blood vessels refexly contract
platelets adhering form a plug may control blood loss from _______ break, but larger break requires ____ halts bleeding small,blood clot
major steps leading to formation of blood clot (PTFFC) PTFFC-place the free food close prothrombin thrombin Ca activator fribrinogen Ca activator fibrin clot
contrast thrombus & embolus thrombus-abnormal blood clot in vessel(inside) embolus-clot/fragment clot moves in vessel(outside)
eat out embolus
tea in thrombus
an individual w/ B antigens & anti-A antibodies is ABO blood type B
self A/A anti-B
self B/B anti-A
self AB/A neither anti-A/B
self O/neither A/B both anti-A/B
receive A/A O
receive B/B O
receive AB/AB A,B,O
receive O/O no alternate types
an individual w/ typeB should not receive transfusion w/ typeAB blood will die, body will attack itself
typeAB universal recipients
typeO universal donors
distinguish between Rh+ & Rh- blood Rh+=antigenD present on RBC membrane Rh-=antigenD absent
hemolytic disease of fetus/newborn erythroblastosis fetalis Rh blood group of mother attacks baby, but controlled through RhoGAM now
whole blood cut yourself
5 liters whole blood
whole blood contains 5 liters connective tissue 45% living cells 55% plasma
living cells in whole blood 45%
plasma cells in whole blood 55%
Created by: virg