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Chapter 13

Vascular System

QuestionAnswer
The blood vessels that carry blood from arterioles to venules are ________. Capillaries.
The vessels that carry blood from the heart to capillaries are ________. Arteries.
The vessels that carry blood from capillaries to the heart are ________. Veins.
What is the innermost layer of arteries and veins called? Tunica intama.
The tunica intama is made of ________ epithelium tissue. Simple squamous.
Simple squamous epithelium tissue is very ________. Smooth.
What is the function of simple squamous epithelium? Prevents abnormal clotting.
The middle layer of arteries and veins is called _______. Tunica media.
The tunica media is made of ________ muscle and ____________ tissue. Smooth, elastic connective.
What is the function of smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue? To maintain dialostic pressure.
What is the outer most layer of arteries and veins called? Tunica externa.
The tunica externa is made of __________ tissue. Fibrous connective.
The function of the fibrous connective tissue of the tunica externa is what? Prevents rupture or bursting of arteries.
The middle layer of arteries is ________. Thick.
The middle layer of arteries is thick and important in the maintenance of __________. Blood pressure.
The outer layer of arteries is ________. Thick.
The outer layer of arteries is thick to prevent ________ by the high blood pressure in the vessel. Rupture,
The lining of arteries is folded into valves? True or False. False.
The outer layer of veins is ________. Thin.
The lining of veins is folded into valves to prevent the backflow of blood. True or False? True.
The middle layer of veins is thin, and not important in the maintanence of __________. Blood pressure.
The direct connections between arteries or between veins are called ________. Anastomosis.
What is the purpose of anastomosis? They provide alternate pathways for flow of blood if one vessel becomes blocked or obstructed.
Capillaries are made of what tissue? Simple squamous.
Simple squamous tissue is thin to ________ exchanges of materials between the blood and surrounding cells. Permit.
Blood flow through capillary networks is regulated by smooth muscle cells called ________. Precapillary sphincters.
Pre-capillary sphincters are regulated by ___________. Tissue needs.
In active tissue pre-capillary sphincters will ________ to increase ________ flow to supply the tissue with more ________. Dialate, blood, oxygen.
Large and very permeable capilllaries are called ________. Sinusoids.
Protiens and blood cells can ________ or ________ sinusiods. Enter, leave.
Sinusoids are found in these organs (tissues). Liver, spleen, red bone marrow.
In capillaries, when molecules move from an area of greater concentration to and area of lesser concentration this is called ________. Diffusion.
In capillaries, when the oxygen moves from the blood to tissue fluid this is called ________. Diffusion.
In capillaries, carbon dioxide moves from tissue fluid into the blood during ________. Diffusion.
Filtration in capillaries the high blood pressure are the arterial end of capillary networks forces _________ out of ________. Plasma, capillaries.
In capillaries, when nutrients move from the blood into the tissue fluid this is called ________. Filtration.
In the capillaries, the albumin in the creates a colloid osmotic pressure that pulls ________ and ________ materials. Water, dissolved.
In the capillaries, when waste products move from tissue fluid into blood this is ________. Osmosis.
The pulmonary circulation pathway begins at the _______ ventricle. Right.
The right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary artery to the ________. Lungs.
Blood in the pulmonary veins returns to the ________ atrium. Left.
The purpose of the pulmonary circulation is to exchange _________ and _________. Oxygen, carbon dioxide.
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the pumonary circulation pathway happens between the blood in the pulmonary ________ and the air in the ________ of the lungs. Capillaries, alveoli.
The systemic circulation pathway begins at the ________ ventricle. Left.
The left ventricle pumps blood through the aorta to the ________. Body.
Blood in the superior and inferior caval veins returns to the ________ atrium. Right.
The purpose of the systemic circulation pathway is to exchange materials between the blood in the systemic ________ and the ________ throughout the body. Capillaries, cells.
The parts of the aorta are named according to their ________. Locations.
Below the level of the diaphragm is the ________ part of the aorta. Abdominal.
The ascending aorta emerges from the ________ ventricle. Left.
The aortic ________ curves over the top of the heart. Arch.
The heart is supplied by what artery? Coronary.
The thigh is supplied by which artery? Femoral.
The arm is supplied by what artery? Brachial.
The bronchioles are supplied by which artery? Bronchial.
The brain is supplied by which 2 arteries? Internal carotid, Vertebral.
The kidney's are supplied by which artery? Renal.
The liver is supplied by which artery? Hepatic.
The chest wall is supplied by which artery? Intercostal.
The lower leg is supplied by which artery? Anterior tibial.
The shoulder is supplied by which artery? Subclavian.
The forearm is supplied by which artery? Radial.
The small intestine is supplied by which artery? Superior mesenteric.
The esophagus is supplied by which artery? Esophgeal.
The abdominal organs are supplied by which artery? Celiac.
The knee is supplied by which artery? Popiteal
The hip is supplied by which artery? Common iliac.
The foot is supplied by which artery? Plantat arches.
The neck is drained of blood by which vein? External jugular.
The armpit is drained of blood by which vein? Axillary.
The leg and thigh are drained of blood by which vein? Great saphenous.
The lower body is drained of blood by which vein? Inferior vena cava.
The hip is drained of blood by which vein? Common iliac.
The forearm is drained of blood by which vein? Ulnar.
The brain is drained of blood by which vein? Cranial venous sinuses.
The upper body is drained of blood by which vein? Superior vena cava.
The kidney's are drained of blood by which vein? Renal.
The shoulder is drained of blood by which vein? Subclavian.
The arm is drained of blood by which vein? Brachial.
The thigh is drained of blood by which vein? Femoral.
The portal vein is formed by the union of what two large veins? Superior mesenteric, splenic.
The first set of capillaries is in the ________ and ________. Digestive organs, spleen.
The second set of capillaries are in the ________ in the ________. Sinusoids, liver.
The sight of exchanges of materials between fetal blood and maternal blood is the ________. Placenta.
Materials exchanged in the placenta are ________, ________, and ________. Oxygen, nutrients, waste products.
The mechanisms of exchange are ________ and ________. Diffusion, active transport.
The fetus is connected to the placenta by the __________. Umbilical cord.
The umbilical cord contains ___ umbilical arteries. 2.
The umbilical cord contains ___ umblilical vein. 1.
The umbilical arteries carry blood from the ________ to the ________. Fetus, placenta.
Within the body of the fetus, the umbilical vein branches into ___ vessels. 2.
Within the heart, the ________ is an opening in the interatrial septum. Ductus ovale.
The ductus arteriosus permits most fetal blood to ________ the ________. Pass by, lungs.
After birth, the ductus venosus constricts and becomes ________. Non-functional.
The segment of the vascular system with the greatest cross-sectional area is the ________. Capillaries.
The velocity of blood in the capillaries is the ________. Slowest.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the ________. Blood vessels.
Blood pressure is measured in units called ______. mmHg.
Systemic BP is created by the pumping of the ________ to the heart. Left ventricle.
Systoic BP is the pressure when the left ventricle is ________. Contracting.
Diastolic BP is the pressure when the left ventricle is ________. Relaxed.
In systemic circulation, BP is highest in the ________. Aorta.
In systemic circulation BP is lowest in the ________. Veins.
The process of filtration in capillaries is important to bring ________ to tissues. Relaxing.
Pulmonary BP is always ________, because the ________ pumps less forcefully than the left ventricle. Low, right ventricle.
The low BP in the pulmonary capillaries is important to prevent ________. Filtration.
Venous return is the amount of ________ that returns to the heart. Blood.
Venous return is essintial to maintain ________. Cardiac output.
If venous return decreases, cardiac output will ________, and BP will _________. Decrease, decrease.
Constriction of veins helps ________ venous return. Increase.
The tissue in the wall of a vein that is capable of contraction is ________. Smooth muscle.
If heart rate and force increase, BP will ________. Increase.
Peripheal resistance is the resistance of the ________ to the ________ of blood. Blood vessels, flow.
Normal diastolic BP is maintained by slight _________ of the veins and arteries. Constriction.
Greater vasoconstriction will ________ BP. Increase.
Vasodilation will ________ BP. Decrease.
The elastic walls of the large arteries are stretched during ventricular ________ and recoil during ventricular ________. Systole, diastole.
The viscosity of blood depends upon the presence of ________ and ________. Blood cells, albumin.
Decreased blood viscosity will ________ BP. Decrease.
Following a severe hemorrhage, BP will ________. Decrease.
Several ________ have effects on BP. Hormones.
Norepinephrine raises BP becauase it stimulates ________. Vasoconstriction.
Epinephrine raises BP because it stimulates increased heart rate and force of _________. Contraction.
ADH raises BP by increasing the reabsorbtion of ________ by the ________. Water, kidneys.
Aldosterone raises BP by increasing the reabsorption ________ by the ________. Na+ ions, kidneys.
ANP lowers BP by increasing urinary excretion of ________ and ________. Sodium ions, water.
The heart responds to increased venous return by pumping more ________. Forcefully.
BP depends on the characteristic of cardiac muscle called ________. Sterlings law of the heart.
Decreased blood flow to the kidneys will result in _________ filtration. Decreased.
The vasomotor center is located in the ________ of the brain. Medulla.
The vasomotor center consists of two areas which are ________ area and the ________ area. Vasocontrictor, vasodilator.
The medulla recieves sensory information about the need for changes in vessel diameter from the _________. Pressoreceptors.
Pressoreceptors are located in the ________ and ________ sinuses. Carotid, aortic.
The division of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the diameter of arteries and veins is the ________ division. Sympathetic.
Several impulses per second maintain normal ________ of arteries and veins. vasoconstriction.
More vasocontriction is brought out by more impulses per second and will ________ BP. Raise.
More vasodilation is brought about by ________ impulses per second and will ________ BP. Fewer, lower.`
Hypertension is systemic BP that consistently has a systolic reading above ________ mmHg and a diastolic reading above ________ mmHg. 130-140, 85-90.
Chronic hypertension weakens the walls of arteries and contributes the the deterioration called ________. Arteriosclerosis.
Weakened arteries may rupture, which often occurs in the ________ and ________. Brain, kidneys.
Created by: laceychapman