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Ch. 13/MED 126

The Vascular System

The vascular system consists of? Veins, arteries, and capillaries
What does the vascular system circulate to provide for gas, nutrient, and waste exchange? Blood
What carries blood away from the heart? Arteries
In the arteries, pressure is high/low? High
Arteries branch into smaller arteries until they become? Arterioles
Arterioles empty into? Capillaries
The 3 layers of arteries are? Tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa
What is the innermost layer of an artery called? Tunica intima
What layer is the only layer that contacts blood? Tunica intima
The tunica intima is made up of ___________ epithyelium called endothelium? Simple squamos
`The tunica intima is continuous with the? Endocardium
The smoothness of the tunica intima prevents? Clotting
What layer of the artery produces NO (nitric oxide)? Tunica intima
The tunica intima produces nitric oxide which causes? Vasodilation
The middle layer of the artery is called? Tunica media
The tunica media is made up of ______ muscle and _______ connective tissue? Smooth, elastic
The tunica media helps maintain blood pressure during? Diastole
Nitric oxide increases relaxation of the tunica? Media
Nitric oxide increases relaxation of the tunica media which increases/decreases BP? Decreases
In the tunica media, the SNS causes vaso? Constriction
What is the internal elastic lamina? Elastic layer that separates the inner 2 layers
What is the external elastic lamina? Elastic layer that separates the outer 2 layers
What is the outer layer of the artery called? Tunica externa
The tunica externa is made up of _____________ connective tissue? Dense, irregular, fibrous
The tunica externa provides strength to prevent? Rupture/aneurysm due to high pressure
Arterioles do not have a tunica? Externa
Arterioles allow arteries to prevent flow to? Capillaries
Veins carry blood away/toward the heart? Toward
In the veins, pressure is high/low? Low
Veins start out as ______ from capillaries? Venules
Some veins in the lower extremities contain flaps called? Valves
What do valves prevent? Backflow of blood
Damage of valves leads to? Varicosities
The tunica media is thinner because they do little to regulate? Blood pressure
Why is the tunica externa thinner? Because of the lower pressure in veins
What is a connection/joining of vessels that provides an alternate pathway when blockage occurs, i.e., provides redundancy called? Anastomosis
Capillaries are single layer vessels that connect _______ to ________? Arterioles to venules
Capillaries contain only? Endothelium
Capillaries cannot dilate/constrict? Constrict
Capillaries are about the diameter of one? RBC
The number of capillaries in a tissue reflects that tissue's? Metabolic activity
Not all tissues contain blood vessels and must get nutrients and gases via? Diffusion
Flow to capillaries is regulated by? Precapillary sphincters
What takes the place of capillaries in some tissues? Sinusoids
Sinusoids are more permeable to permit? Large proteins and cells to pass through
Capillaries exchange material between the blood and the __________ in the tissues in both directions? Interstitial fluid
Gases in capillaries move by? Diffusion
What occurs because of the higher pressure in the vessel, forcing plasma, glucose, AAs, and vitamins out of the capillary? Filtration
What is the pressure created in the capillary that creates a concentration gradient to pull fluid into blood? Colloid osmotic pressure
COP is created primarily because of? Albumin
COP can be thought of as a "pulling" pressure that pulls ______ into the blood? Water
COP occurs toward the _____ side of the capillary? Venule
COP helps maintain blood? Volume
Excess interstitial fluid is returned via the? Lympahatic vessels
What is a very important anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gl. on the inferior surface of the brain? Circle of Willis
The popliteal v. changes name to become the? Femoral v.
The great saphenous v. combines with the femoral v. to become the? External iliac v.
The external and internal iliac v. join to become the? Common iliac v.
The right and left common iliac combine to become the? Inferior vena cava
What veins join the inferior vena cava? Inferior mesenteric v., gonadal vv., renal v., right and left gastric vv., hepatic v., and intercostal vv.
The median v. becomes the? Basilic v.
The basilic v. combines with the brachial v. to become the? Axillary v.
The median cubital combines the median v. with the ? Cephalic v.
The cephalic v. joins the axillary v. to become the? Subclavian v.
The internal jugular v., external jugular v., ad vertebral v. join the? Subclavian v.
The internal jugular v. is supplied by the? Dural venous sinuses
When the cross-sectional area of the vascular system increases, the velocity of blood flow? Decreases
The total circulation time for the velocity of blood flow is about? One minute
When blood flows, the venules to veins, the cross-sectional area _______, and the velocity ______? Decreases, increases
The segment of the vascular system with the greatest cross-sectional area is the? Capillaries
Velocity of blood flow in the capillaries is? Slow
Explain the importance of velocity of flow in the capillaries: Slow flow allows enough time for exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases.
What is blood pressure? The force the blood exerts against the walls of vessels
What is dependent on BP? Filtration
Blood pressure is measured in? mmHg-milimeters of mercury
Pulmonary BP prevents filtration from the capillaries which would lead to? Pulmonary edema
When taking systemic arterial BP, what 2 numbers are taken? Systolic, diastolic
The pressure when the left ventricle contracts is called? Systolic
The pressure when the left ventricle relaxes is called? Diastolic
Consistent high BP is called? Hypertension
BP that is below normal is called? Hypotension
Systemic BP is highest in the? Aorta
Systemic BP decreases as distance the heart? Increases
What is venous return? The amount of blood returned from the veins to the heart
If venous return decreases, Starling's Law will prevent the heart from contracting as forcefully and BP will ______? Decrease
When standing the heart must overcome gravity pulling the blood to the lower extremities. 3 mechanisms help overcome this and they are called? Venous contriction, skeletal muscle pump, and respiratory pump
Constriction of the veins helps increase venous return. The tissue in the wall of a vein that is capable of contractions is? Smooth muscle
The skeletal muscle pump contributes to venous retun in veins in which part part of the body? Legs
Contraction of skeletal muscles (especially legs) compress these veins and force blood toward the? Heart
The respiratory pump contributes to venous return in veins in which part of the body? Thoracic cavity
As HR and force increases, BP ______? Increases
What is the resistance of blood vessels to the flow of blood? Peripheral resistance
What helps maintain diastolic pressure and pulse pressure? Elasticity of large arteries
What is pulse pressure? The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure
The normal ratio for pulse pressure is? 3:2:1
The thickness of blood is called? Viscosity
Viscosity of the blood is increased due to? Solids
What hormone increases vasoconstriction and HR? Epinephrine
What hormone increases vasoconstriction? Norepinephrine
What hormone increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys? ADH
What hormone increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys by increasing sodium reabsorption? Aldosterone
What hormone increases loss of water by increasing excretion of sodium? ANP
What is the distribution of blood flow? As certain organs require more blood other organs must give up blood in order to maintain pressure
What are the 2 categories of BP regulation? Intrinsic mechanisms and nervous mechanisms
What mechanism is within the cardiovascular system and does not require nervous system input? Intrinsic mechanisms
What are the 3 mechanisms of intrinsic mechanisms? Starling's law, filtration decrease and renin-angiotensin mechanism
During the renin-angiotensin mechanism, BP decrease causes kidneys to release renin which causes? Angiotensin II to be formed which causes vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex
What mechanism is controlled by the ANS? Nervous mechanism
The vasomotor center is located in the ______ of the brain? Medulla
The vasomotor center consists of two areas called the? Vasoconstrictor and vasodilater
The medulla receives sensory information about the need for changes in vessel diameter from the _______ in the carotid and aortic sinuses? Pressoreceptors
The division of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the diameter of arteries and veins is the ______ division? Sympathetic
Vasoconstriction is brought about by more impulses per second and will ______ BP. Raise
Vasodilation is brought about by fewer impulses per second and will ______ BP. Lower
Created by: laceylake



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