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gov chapters 10-19

Political parties Democratic Party Republican Party Independent- - A team of office seekers and their supporters, generally unified by a common ideology, philosophy, set of values and political beliefs, usually outlined in a party platform.
Philosophical and ideological beliefs of Republicans and Democrats Democrats tent to believe more in the ability of government to solve problems than do republicans
Credentials committee of national conventions the body of a political convention that decides which delegates should be seated, subject to approval of the entire convention
Political party structure national political parties, state and local parties,
National chairperson The head of a national political party, is formally elected by the members of the national committee. In practice he or she is chosen or retained by the party's presidential nominee at the end of the national convention.
First Amendment protects freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and freedom of assembly.
Where/how do Americans get their political news? Television, TV commercials and internet.
Role of political consultants the self evident definition of consulting in political matters, refers to a specific management consulting industry which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns.
Hal Bruno and manipulation According to Hal Bruno, journalists are sensitive to being stampeded into doing a story that would be destructive of another candidate, an action called manipulation.-
Whistle Blower Government employees who publicly expose evidence of official waste or corruption that they have learned about in the course of their duties
Hatch Act A federal law Congress passed in 1939 to restrict political activities by federal workers. Under the law, federal employees are protected from political pressure to make campaign contributions or to work in political campaigns.
Senior Executive Service group of high level administrators and managers at the top of the government bureaucracy. SES members have less job tenure but are eligible for substantial cash bonuses for merit.
Franking privilege a system entitling members of congress to send mail to constituents without charge by putting their frank, or mark, on the envelope. The law forbids using this privilege for soliciting money or votes, or for mass mailings 60 days before an election.
Conference committee a committee composed of members of the house and senate that tries to reconcile disagreements between the two branches of congress over differing version of a bill
War Powers Resolution a law passed by congress in 1973 in an effort to set a time limit on the use of combat forces abroud by a president.
Requirements to be President Legal qualifications are the president be a natural born citizen at least 35 years old, and 14 years a resident of the united states.Electoral College
Coalition alliances of segments of the electorate, interest groups and unorganized masses of votes that coalesce behind a political candidate or party
Baker v Carr in 1962 the Supreme Court ruled in favor the voters who had challenged the established order in Tennessee.
Reynolds v Simms in 1964 the Supreme Court made it clear that the fourteenth amendment required that seats in both houses of a state legislature be based on population.
Wesberry v Sanders Supreme Court ruled that despairity in the size of Georgia’s congressional districts violated the Constitution. As a result the states were required to redraw boundaries of their congressional districts to conform to court ruling
Reapportionment The redrawing of congressional districts following the census. The Reapportionment Act of 1929 allowed states to draw districts of varying size and shape.
The character of American Elections Functions of Congress- It is generally assumed that people vote, or not, on the basis of their personal characteristics and perhaps those of the groups of which they form part.
Instructed delegate a legislator who automatically mirrors the will of the majority of his or her constitituents.
Trustee The Burkean concept of the legislator as trustee for the people, the belief that legislators should act according to their conscience- A representative who bases his or her decision not on public opinion but on what he or she believes is right or best.
Rules Committee powerful House body that decides the terms under which bills are heard, amended, and debated.
Standing committees The standing committees of Congress are the permanent committees that consider bills and conduct hearings and investigations.
Joint committee In addition, there are joint committees of the House and Senate dealing with such subjects as the economy and taxes.
Cloture motion a senate procedure to cut off a filibuster by a vote of three-fifths (60 members) of the entire senate.
Legislative veto a provision of law in which congress asserts the power to nullify actions of the executive branch. In 1983 the supreme court ruled that the legislative veto was unconstitutional but congress continued to pass laws containing such provisions.
War Powers Resolution a law passed by congress in 1973 in an effort to set a time limit on the use of combat forces abroud by a president.
Requirements to be President Legal qualifications are the president be a natural born citizen at least 35 years old, and 14 years a resident of the united states.
Created by: lizzyphat