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World War I

World War I and Treaty of Versailles

Glossary TermDefinition
Archduke Frans Ferdinand His assasination in Sarajevo provoked Austria to declare war on Serbia and sparked the beginning of WWI.
Gavrillo Princip His murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo triggered WWI by prompting Austria to declare war on Serbia for the government's apparent hand in the assasination.
Triple Entente France, Russia and Britain entered WWI as a result of this alliance.
Triple Alliance A military alliance formed before World War One between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Often called the Central Powers.
"The Blank Cheque" Germany's guaranteed of support of Austria. So they could take action against Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Frans Ferdinand.
Dreadnought The development of this new type of battleship was a key component of the arms race which preceded WWI between Britain and Germany.
Schlieffen Plan A German war plan: wage war against one enemy at a time (first France), win quickly, and then move on to the next opponent (Russia). This failed at the Battle of the Marne as France was stronger than expected and Russia mobilized quicker than expected.
First Battle of the Marne The first battle or World War I fought in France. After this battle the hopes of the Schlieffen Plan were destroyed and battle tactics had to be changed. The war turned to a stalemate of trench warfare.
Tanks Developed by Britain as a solution to the stalemate of trench warfare. These machines were built so they could navigate over the trenches and then shoot into the trenches. They were a major technological development and they made trench warfare obsolete.
Gas A major military innovation, this weapon caused large scale destruction. Chlorine was the first successful killing agent used and it was first deployed by the Germans. It depicted a major change in war tactics.
Airplanes These were initially used in the war for reconnaissance. Towards the end of the war, they were also used in combat for the first time. A major technological innovation that came about during World War I.
Submarines The German called them U-boats. Because the German U-boats destroyed American ships, the United States entered the war.
Trench Warfare A battle tactic first used in World War I which found both sides digging ditches in order to defend themselves from the enemy. This led to a war of attrition where little ground was ever gained and the amount of causalities were high.
Battles of Attrition A military engagement in which neither side has any tactical advantage, so that the only result of the fighting is the great loss of men and material on both sides. One side tries to outlast the other.
Battle of the Somme In 1916, it was one of the largest battles of WWI. The battle resulted with more than a million casualties and was the bloodiest battle for the British army. They suffered 60,000 casualties on the first day. No decisive advances were made.
Battle of Verdun This 1916 battle was fought between the German and French armies and resulted in more than a quarter of a million deaths and about half a million wounded. It was the longest battle and one of the bloodiest in World War I.
Russian Revolution As a result of the impact of World War I this event in 1917 eventually led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its dissolution in 1991.
US enters the war Unrestricted German submarine warfare resulted in the sinking of the Lusitania and raised tensions between Germany and the US. Germany's attempt for a military alliance with Mexico agaisnt the States, led to this event which was the turning point in WWI.
French troops mutiny Senseless battles of attrition led to this mutiny in 1917.
Gallipoli A 1915-16 battle that took place in Turkey. The battle was an absolute failure for the Allies. The ANZAC forces were desimated after they landed at an impossible cliffside location. An entire generation of Australian and New Zealand men were killed.
Balfour Declaration A promise to make a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Palestine had been promised to both the Arabs and the Jews. In fact, it wasn't given to anybody. Instead, the British kept it as a mandate. This has led to the Arab-Jewish tensions that continue today.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk A treaty signed by Lenin and the Central Powers on March 3, 1918, which marked Russia's exit from WWI.
Battle of Jutland The largest naval battle of World War I. It pitted the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet against the German High Seas Fleet in the North Sea near Denmark. This was the only battle that truly showcased battleships. It was non-decisive.
Suffragettes Name given to members of the British women's movement who during the early twentieth century fought for the vote.
Total War When an entire country consecrates themselves to a war effort. When most production sectors change their production to war supplies. From shells to guns and tanks. Also the government is allowed to make decisions without the regular steps and stages.
Propaganda In France and Britain, the Germans were portrayed as evil monsters that would destroy everything in their paths.. This is also often used to gain support from the people of a country, widely used in the USA to promote total war. Very one sided and biased
Censorship The editing, removing, or otherwise changing of speech and other forms of human expression. In WWI it was used to cover up the truth in lettres coming from the front. They would all be profread and the parts that the masses shouldn't know were eliminated.
The Paris Peace Conference Was organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and the defeated Central Powers. The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty signed with Germany as part of this conference.
Treaty of Versailles The treaty that determined the fate of the Germany after WWI. It imposed a 132 trillion Mark indemnity as well as returned Alscace Lorraine to France. The War Guilt clause and a limitation on the Germany military were also part of this treaty.
Treaty of St.Germain The peace treaty signed with Austria after World War I. I was part of the Paris Peace Talks.
Treaty of Neuilly The peace treaty signed with Bulgaria after World War I. It was part of the Paris Peace Conference.
Treaty of Trianon The peace treaty signed with Hungary after World War I. It was part of the Paris Peace Conference.
Treaty of Sevres The peace treaty signed with the Ottoman Empire after World War I. It was part of the Paris Peace Conference.
The Big Three They were the most significant policy makers at the treaty of Versailles. Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson.
Woodrow Wilson Made the Fourteen Points address. Introduced the idea of a League of Nations. For his peacemaking efforts was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize. His failure to win U.S. entry into the League as the biggest mistake of his administration.
David Lloyd George British representative at the Treaty of Versailles who did not want to utterly destroy the German economy and political system because he felt they should be a trading partner. His priority was the British Empire and mandates.
Georges Clemenceau Led France during WWI, was a major voice behind the Treaty of Versailles. He was anti-German and made sure the Treaty of Versailles was especially punishing for Germany.
Fourteen Points Formulated by Woodrow Wilson as a blueprint for European peace after WWI. Resulted in the German surrender in WWI in hopes of a just peace but many points were surrendered to the harsher British and French leaders.
Self-Determination Allows people of similar background the right to their own state or nation. Was the basis for many of the new countries formed after WWI but was overlooked in places such as the Polish corridor, the Sudetenland, and Yugoslavia.
Diktat A treaty in which the nation recieving has no say in anything. Led to bitterness about the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles by the German people.
League of Nations International organization formed after the Paris Peace Conference, intended to help maintain peace and the balance of power but lacked an armed force to ensure this. aIt was an unsuccessful attempt at collective security.
Collective Security The theory that if one nation is attacked that all the other countries will react in opposition to the aggressor nation. It was the basis of the League of Nations.
War Guilt Clause Germany was forced to take complete responsibility for starting World War I. This simply served to anger the Germans and ensure that they would seek revenge.
War reparations Germany was told to pay 132 billion gold marks to the Allies under the Treaty of Versailes because of the damage they had caused during World War I.
Created by: alfromcanada