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Ch.13/MED 126

The Vascular System-Practice Test

QuestionAnswer
The layer of the wall of an artery that is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting is the? Endothelium
The layer of the wall of an artery that helps maintain blood pressure is the? Middle layer
The layer of the wall of an artery that helps prevent rupture is the? Outer layer
Simple squamous epithelium forms the _______ of an artery? Lining
Simple squamous epithelium forms the lining of an artery and its function is to? Prevent abnormal clotting
Smooth muscle tissue forms the _____ layer of an artery? Middle
Smooth muscle tissue function is to? Maintain blood pressure
Fibrous connective tissue forms the _____ layer of an artery? Outer
Fibrous connective tissue function is to prevent? Rupture
In the wall of a vein, the layer that is folded into valves is the? Inner layer
The outer layer of the wall of a vein is thin because? Blood pressure in veins is low
The function of valves in veins is to? Prevent backflow of blood
In the vascular system, an alternate pathway for blood flow is provided by vessels called an? Anastomosis
An arterial anastomosis provides an alternate pathway for blood to flow to a(n)? Organ
A venous anastomosis provides an alternate pathway for blood to flow back to the? Heart
Capillaries are made of _____________ tissue? Simple squamos epithelial
Capillaries important characteristic is its? Thinness
Capillaries are the site of _________ between the blood and tissues? Exchanges
The flow of blood into a capillary network is regulated by a? Precapillary sphincter
A precapillary sphincter is made of ________ tissue? Smooth muscle
In capillaries, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between blood and tissues by the process of? Diffusion
In capillaries, nutrients are brought out into tissues by the process of? Filtration
In capillaries, tissue fluid is brought back into the blood by the process of? Osmosis
In capillaries, the process of filtration depends on? Blood pressure
In capillaries, colloid osmotic pressure is created by the presence of ________ in the blood? Albumin
In capillaries, blood pressure provides the energy for the process of? Filtration
In capillaries, albumin creates _________ pressure, a pulling pressure? Colloid osmotic
Capillaries carry blood from _______ to ______? Arterioles, venules
Arteries carry blood from the _______ to ______? Heart, capillaries
Veins carry blood from _______ to _______? Capillaries, heart
The circle of Willis is formed by the two _________ arteries and the _______ artery? Internal carotid, basilar
The circle of Willis supplies the? Brain
The circle of Willis supplies the brain, and is an example of an arterial? Anastomosis
In hepatic portal circulation, blood from the digestive organs and the spleen flows through the _______ before returning to the heart? Liver
In hepatic portal circulation, veins from abdominal organs unite to form the _______ vein that empties blood into the ________ of the liver? Portal, sinusoids
One purpose of portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive glucose absorbed by the __________ and store the excess as ______? Small intestine, glycogen
One purpose of portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive the iron of __________ destroyed in the spleen and store any excess. Old red blood cells
One purpose of hepatic portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive alcohol absorbed by the stomach and ________ it before blood reaches the _______? Detoxify, brain
In pulmonary circulation, blood is pumped to the lungs by the? Right ventricle
In pulmonary circulation, blood is pumped to the lungs by the right ventricle and returns to the _________ of the heart? Left atrium
In pulmonary capillaries, ________ diffuses from blood to air? Carbon dioxide
In pulmonary capillaries, ________ diffuses from air to blood? Oxygen
The blood pressure in pulmonary circulation is always? Low
The blood pressure in pulmonary circulation is always low to prevent filtration and accumulation of fluid in the? Alveoli
In fetal circulation, exchanges between fetal blood and maternal blood take place in the? Placenta
In fetal circulation, blood flows from the placenta to the fetus through the? Umbilical vein
In fetal circulation, blood flows from the fetus to the placenta through the? Umbilical arteries
In fetal circulation, blood in the umbilical vein, has a high level of? Oxygen
In fetal circulation, blood in the umbilical arteries has a high level of? Carbon dioxide
In fetal circulation, the vessel that takes most incoming blood to the inferior vena cava is the? Ductus venous
In fetal circulation, the __________ permits blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium? Foramen ovale
In fetal circulation, the _________ permits blood to flow from the pulmonary to the aorta? Ductus arteriosus
In fetal circulation, the purpose of the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus is to permit blood to? Bypass the fetal lungs
Venous return is the amount of blood that is returned to the? Heart
Veins are able to constrict because of the ____________ tissue in their walls? Smooth muscle
The skeletal muscle pump is especially important for venous return by the veins in the? Legs
The respiratory pump is especially important for venous return by the veins in the? Thoracic cavity
The flow of venous return is kept to one direction only by the ______ in the veins? Valves
If venous return decreases, cardiac output will? Decrease
The elasticity of the large arteries permits them to _______ during left ventricular systole, and thereby to _______ systolic BP? Stretch, lower
The elasticity of the large arteries permits them to _______ during left ventricular diastole, and thereby to ______ diastolic BP? Recoil, raise
Starling's law of the heart states that when cardiac muscle fibers are stretched, they will? Contract more forcefully
When venous return increases, the heart contracts more forcefully; this is called? Starling's law of the heart
If venous return decreases, the heart contracts _____ forcefully and cardiac output ______? Less, decreases
The hormone that raises blood pressure by increasing heart rate and force of contraction is? Epinephrine
The hormone that raises blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction throughout the body is? Norepinephrine
The hormone that raises blood pressure by increasing sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys is? Aldosterone
The hormone that raises blood pressure by directly increasing the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is? ADH
The hormone that lowers blood pressure by increasing the excretion of sodium and water by the kidneys is? ANP
Two hormones that affect blood pressure because they affect blood volume are? Aldosterone, ADH;ANP
Two hormones that affect blood pressure because they affect the diameter of blood vessels are? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
When blood flow through the kidney's decreases, the process of ______ decreases, and ______ is conserved to maintain BP? Filtration, water
When blood pressure decreases, renin is secreted by the? Kidneys
When BP decreases, the kidneys secrete renin, which initiates the formation of? Angiotensin II
Angiotensin II causes _______ and stimulates the secretion of ________, both of which will _______ BP? Vasoconstriction, aldosterone, raise
To compensate for a small loss of blood, the heart rate will? Increase
To compensate for a small loss of blood, the kidneys will? Decrease urinary output
To compensate for a small loss of blood the arteries will? Constrict
A normal blood pressure is considered to be below? 120/80
Hypertension is considered to be a blood pressure that is consistently higher than? 140/90
What part of the brain regulates the diameter of the arteries and veins? Medulla
The medulla of the brain regulates the diameter of arteries and veins, and has a __________ area and a ____________ area? Vasoconstrictor, vasodilater
The nerves to the smooth muscle of the arteries and veins are _______ nerves? Sympathetic
When vasoconstriction is needed to raise BP, the arteries receive more _______ impulses? Sympathetic
When vasodilation is needed to lower BP, the arteries receive fewer _______ impulses? Sympathetic
Velocity of blood flow is inversely related to the ___________ of the particular part of the vascular system? Cross-sectional areas
Blood flow is slowest in ______, and this is important to permit time for exchanges of materials? Capillaries
During exercise, blood flow to the heart will? Increase
During exercise, blood flow to the skeletal muscles will? Increase
During exercise, blood flow to the digestive tract will? Decrease
During exercies, blood flow to the skin will? Increase
Created by: laceylake