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A&P 1 Exam 2

Study Guide

What are the five types of bone classifications? Long bone, short bone, irregular bone, flat bone, sesamoid bone
Describe a long bone and provide an example of a long bone. Bone that is longer than it is wide. Example is the humerus of the arm or the femur of the leg.
Describe a short bone and provide an example of a short bone. Bone that is nearly equal in length and width. Example is the carpal and tarsal bone.
Describe an irregular bone and provide an example of an irregular bone. Bone that have elaborate shapes that do not fit into any other categories. An example is the vertebrae.
Describe a flat bone and provide an example of a flat bone. Bone that tend to be broad and thin and are used to protect organs. Examples are the some cranial bones, ribs, and sternum.
Describe a sesamoid bone and provide an example of a sesamoid bone. Bone that forms within tendons in response to stress. Example is the patella.
What is compact bone? Compact bone is the dense, calcified tissue of the bone. It contains central canal, lacunae, canaliculi, and osteon.
What is spongy bone? Inside of compact bone and contains the marrow. Contains spicules and trabeculae.
What is yellow marrow? This marrow is found in older adults. It does not produce blood.
What is red marrow? Children contain all red marrow in spongy bone. Described as hemopoietic tissue.
What is the axial skeleton? Contains the central supporting axis of the body.
What does the axial skeleton include? Skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.
How many bones does the axial skeleton contain? It contains 80 bones.
What is the appendicular skeleton? Contains the bones of the upper limb and pectoral girdle and the bones of the lower limb and pelvic girdle.
How many bones does the appendicular skeleton contain? It contains 126 bones.
Projection: Define "crest" A narrow ridge (Example: iliac crest of the pelvis)
Projection: Define "epicondyle" A projection superior to a condyle (Example: medial epicondyle of the femur)
Projection: Define "Line" A slightly raised, elongated ridge (Example: nuchal lines of the skull)
Projection: Define "Process" Any bony prominence (Example: mastoid process of the skull)
Projection: Define "Protuberance" A bony outgrowth or protruding part (mental protuberance of the chin)
Projection: Define "Spine" A sharp, slender, or narrow process (spine of scapula)
Projection: Define "Trochanter" Two massive process unique to the femur.
Projection: Define "Tubercle" A small, rounded process (greater tubercle of the humerus)
Projection: Define "Tuberosity" A rough elevated surface (tibial tuberosity)
Articulations: Define "Condyle" A rounded knob that articulates with another bone (occipital condyles of the skull)
Articulations: Define "Facet" A smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface (articular facets of the vertebrae)
Articulations: Define "Head" The prominent expanded end of a bone, sometimes rounded (head of femur)
Depressions: Define "alveolus" A pit or socket (tooth socket)
Depressions: Define "fossa" A shallow, broad, or elongated basin (mandibular fossa)
Depressions: Define "Fovea" A small pit (fovea capitis of the femur)
Depressions: Define "Sulcus" A groove for a tendon, nerve, or blood vessel (intertubercular sulcus of the humerus)
Openings: Define "Canal" A tubular passage or tunnel in a bone (condylar canal of the skull)
Openings: Define "Fissure" A slit through a bone (orbital fissures behind the eye)
Openings: Define "Foramen" A hole through a bone, usually round (foramen magnum of the skull)
Openings: Define "meatus" an opening into a canal (acoustic meatus of the ear)
Openings: Define "sinus" An air-filled space in a bone (frontal sinus of the forehead)
What are the 4 sutures of the skull? Sagittal (down the top of the skull), Lamboidal (back of cranium), Coronal (Front of cranium) Squamous (Near temporal regions)
There are 6 cranial bones. Identify each cranial bone. Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid
The frontal bone has three features associated with it. Name them. (SSZ) Supraorbital foramen, Superciliary ridges (brow ridge), Zygomatic process
The occipital bone has three features associated with it. Name name. (EFO) Occipital condyles, external occipital protuberance, foramen magnum
The temporal bone has five features associated with it. Name them. (EZMSM) External auditory meatus, zygomatic process, mastoid process, styloid process, mandibular fossa
Created by: Treeegrl