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Medication Administration

adverse drug reaction A unexpected severe reaction to a drug administered at a normal dosage.
Also known as drug hypersensitivity or drug intoloerence. adverse drug reaction
Absorption Passage of medicatiion into the blood from its site of administration.
What 5 factors influence absorption? Route administration, ability to dissolve, blood flow, body surface area, and lipid solubility of medication.
Name 3 FDA drug categories. Prescription, non-prescription (otc), controlled substances.
What is the name of the federal act that regulates the manufacture, distribution, and dispensation of drugs that have the potential for abuse? Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970.
How many schedules does the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act have? 5 schedules starting with the most addictive drugs categorized in Schedule one to the least addictive in Schedule five.
What drugs are associated with schedule 1? Heroin, Marijuana, and LSD.
Give examples of schedule 2 drugs. Narcotics (Morphine), stimulants (cocaine), depressants (barbiturates).
What drugs are associated with schedule 3 drugs? nonbarbituarte sedatives, nonamphetamine stimulants and tylenol w/ codeine.
What drugs are associated with schedule 4 drugs? Some sedatives and anxiety agents and non narcotic analgesics (Darvon, Xanax, Valium).
What drugs are associated with schedule 5 drugs? cough medicine or anti-diarrheals.
Controlled substances should be double locked with a seperate key. (T/F) True
Controlled substances can be handled by anyone. (T/F) False
Drug Any substance used in diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a dsease or condition.
What are three names given to a drug? Chemical, Generic, Trade.
Who is most concerned with the chemical name? Give an example of a chemical name. The chemist is most concerned with the chemical name. Ie. acetyl-para-aminophenol
Who is concerned with the generic name? Give an example of a generic name. The medical practitioner uses the generic name in a clinical setting. acetaminophen.
Who is concerned with a drug's trade name? Give and example of a trade name. The trade name is the name most commonly used in the community or by the patient. Ie. Tylenol.
What does the chemical and generic name have in common? Both names are not capitalized.
What is the systematic classification into a reasonable number of drug groups on the basis of chemical, pharmacologic, or therapeutic relatedness? Drug classification.
What are the three drug classifications? Clinical indication (therapeutic), mechanism of action (pharmacologic), and body system.
Give and example of the three drug classification. clinical indication (laxative, antibiotics, antacid), mechanism of action (anti-cholinergics, calcium-channel blockers), Body system (CNS.
Pharmacokinetics Study of how medications enter the body and are processed through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
Absorption Passage of medication into the blood from its administration site.
What factors influence absorption? route of administration, medications ability to dissolve, blood flow to the site of administration, body surface area, lipid solubility of medication.
Given in sequence from high to low, what are the most rapidly absorbed methods of distributing medications? Intravenous, Intramuscular, Subcutaneous, Oral route (GI).
Distribution Allocation of medication, after absorbtion, to various organs within the body.
Metabolism Process of converting a drug by the liver to inactive compounds through a series of chemical reactions.
Biotransformation Metabolism
Why is the liver important in metabolizing drugs? It oxidizes and tranforms many toxic substances and it degrades many harmful chemicals before they become distributed to tissues.
Excretion The process of medications exiting the body after being metabolized.
What is the proper fluid intake to promote proper elimination of medications for an average adult? 50 ml/kg/day
Half-life The time required for the body to eliminate 50% of a drug.
Therapeutic Effects Expected or predictable physiological response a medication causes.
Side Effects The unintended, secondary effects a medication predictably will cause.
Toxic Effects Excess amounts of a medication with in the body which may have lethal effects.
Idiosyncratic Reactions Unpredictable unexpected effects in which a client overreacts or under reacts to a medication or has a reaction that is different from the norm.
A sedative is given to a patient that has severe anxiety attacks which causes them to become agitated and restless. This is an example of what type of effect? Idiosyncratic
If a patient is presented with loss of consciousness, hives, swelling of the tongue, and rapid swelling of the throat tissues may be demonstrating signs of what effect? Anaplylaxis shock.
A manifestation of a collection of fluid in the subcutaneous tissues in the eyelids, lips, mouth, and throat may be a sign of? Angioedema
Drug interactions When one drug alters or modifies another drug.
Polypharmacy People taking several medications.
5 types of drug interactions. Additive, synergistic, antagonistic, interference, and incompatibility.
Additive Effect Two drugs with similar actions that are taken for a doubled effect.
Synergistic Effect When one drug increases the action or effect of another drug.
Antogonistic Effect When one drug blocks the action of another which may be used to counteract the effects of a perviously given drug.
Interference One drug inhibits the metabolism of excretion of a second drug, causing increased activity of the second drug.
Incompatiblity The deterioration of medication caused by two drugs being mixed together in the sam syringe or solution.
You are mixing two drugs and notice haziness, precipitate, or a change in color in the vial. What do you suspect about the two drugs? The two drugs are incompatible and my charge nurse or physican needs to be notified.
drug dosages amount of drug precribed for the client.
List 8 factors that affect drug dosage and action. age, weight, physical health, psychological status, temperatures, gender, amount of food in the stomach, dosage form.
Buccal and sublingual administration of medication is an example of which route of administration? Percutaneous
Enteral Administered along any portion of the G.I. tract.
Percutaneous Through the skin or mucous membranes.
Pills, enemas, and suppositories are both examples of which type of administration route? Enteral
Powders, creams, and ointments applied to the skin are all examples of which administration route? Percutaneous
Parenteral Administered by methods other than digestive route. (Injections)
Name four parenteral routes of administration. Subcutaneously, intramuscular, intravenous, intradermal.
List the 6 patient routes. Patient, medication, dose, route, time, documentation.
If a client refuses medication how would you document the patients chart? If medication is not given at the proper time circle the blank time of administration block and document the refusal with a reason.
To maintain accountability of controlled substances how many narcotics checks should a nurse conduct? At least two; One at the start of the shift and one at the closing of the shift.
Nurse Jane administered only half of a premeasured dosage of medication and threw the container in the garbage. Did Nurse Jane respond properly to "Narcotic Wasting"? No, Nurse Jane should have had a licensed RN witness and document the disposal of the unused portion of the medications with both nurses initals.
Micro drip 60 gtts per minute
Macro drip anything other than 60 gtts per minute
How is a pump measured? ml/hr
How is tubing measured? gtts/min
Range in size from 1 mL to 50 mL. Hypodermic syringe
A capacity of 0.5 mL to 1 mL. Tuberculin syringe
Calibrated to match dose and strength of insulin being used. Insulin syringe.
Which injectables are rounded to the nearest hundreth? Heparin, Insulin, and Terbutaline.
What is the window of administration does a patient have to recieve medications? Medications can be distributed 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after the prescribed time.
1 0z 30 ml
1 gr 60 mg
1 tbsp 15 mL
1 tsp 5 mL
1 lb 16 oz
1 kg 1000 g
1 g 1000 mg
1 mg 1000 mcg
2.2 lb 1 kg
Created by: epowells
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