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Anatomy unit 2

MiraCosta Bio 210 anatomy unit 2

List the multiple functions of the integument system Sensation, Excretion,Immune Defense, Body temperature regulation, Physical Protection, Nutrition
List the functions and anatomical structures of sensation. Merkel Cells detect sensation by releasing chemicals that stimulate when pressure is applied. Hair follicles located in the dermis are surrounded by a root hair plexus causing sensation when a hair is moved.
List the funtions and anatomical structures of immune defense Langerhan cells initiate an immune response against epidermal cancer cells and pathogens that penetrate the superficial layers of the epidermis. Sebum provides lubrication and inhibits bacterial growth.
List the functions and anatomical structures of excretion Merocrine glands located in the dermis are coiled tubular glands that secrete a clear solution directly on the surface of the skin consisting of water, salt and urea.
List the functions and anatomical structures of temperature regulation arteris&veins supply the skin with blood which helps by ciruclating the blood and reducing the amount of heat lost. Merocrine glands excrete sweat, cooling the body down. Hair on a persons head, helps insulate the body.
List the functions and anatomical structures of physical protection the stratum corneum makes the skin water resistent and protects the underlying layers. the layers protect internal structures, bones and organs. hair on our eyelids and nostrils protect foreign objects from entering. Our epidermis protects our dermis
List the functions and anatomical structures of nutrition to the skin Melanin pigments absorb ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, converting it to vitamin D, needed in the body for bone maintance and grwoth.
Explain the differences between thick and thin skin including both structural differences and location. Thick skin is located on the plantar and palmar surfaces, all five layers are present. Thick skin can sometimes have up to 30 layers of keritinazized cells. Thin skin covers the majority of our bodies and only has four layers, missing stratum lucidom.
Discuss the lines of cleavage in the dermis and discuss their clinical significance line of clevage are bundles of collagen and elastic fibers,arrangement depends tension or stress applied to skin during normal movement.clinical signigicane allows surgeon to make parrallel cuts which helps reduce scarring, speeding up recovery time.
Describe the microscopic structure (i.e. tissue types and accessory structures) and function of the subcutaneous layer located deep to skin, called the hypodermis/ superficial fascia. Loose C.T. with abundant adipocytes. Acces. Str. include hair follicles. F- attaches skin to underlying tissues, insulation, padding, thermoregulation, energy reserve, shock absorber. Subcu Layer is excessive in young children.
Explain the difference between keratinocytes and melanocytes, including their respective functions and locations. Keratinocytes primarytype epidermis,houses carotene,waxy substance that protects new keratinocytes.create visual pigments &located in subcu layer/stratum corneum.melanocyteslocated epiderm.produce melanin, melansomes color kerti.until killed by lysomes.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma found body in places which are exposed to the sun (UV radiation) on a regular basis, includes ears, face, mouth, etc.usually characterized be a bump that turns into an open sore that won’t heal.This carcinoma has a very low risk for metastasizing.
Basal Cell Carcinoma Most common type of carcinoma. Found on the face, neck & hands. ITs highly treatable & is characterized by sore which secretes fluids when irritated. persons who have Blonde hair, red hair, fair skin, blue or green eyes are at high risk.
Melanoma Most deadly of the three carcinomas.ability to develop on any part of the body,characterized by a mole or a freckle that changes in color &in size, or a mole that has a weird spreads rapidly when metasized. affects person who tans/out in sun
Gliding Motion movement in which two opposing surfaces slide past one another. Occurs in tarsals, carpals, sternum. the movement can in almost any direction, the amount of movement is slight, and rotation prevented.
what are the 6 different types of angular motions? circumduction abduction adduction flexion extension hyperextension
Flexion movement in the anterior-posterior plane that reduces the angle between the articulating elements (i.e: bicep curl from anatomical position)articulating elements (i.e: bicep curl from anatomical position)
extension occurs in the same plane, but it increases the angle between articulating elements (i.e: returning the arm to the anatomical position)
Hyperextension any movement where a limb is extended beyond its normal limits, resulting in joint damage; usually prevented by ligaments, bony processes, or surrounding soft tissue
Abduction always refers to movement of the appendicular skeleton away from the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane (i.e: while in anatomical position, swinging the upper limb away from the side)
Adduction always refers to movement of the appendicular skeleton back towards the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane (i.e: moving the upper limb back towards the side)
Circumduction : the circular movement of a limb (i.e: moving your arm in a loop, as when drawing a large circle on a chalkboard)
What are the four rotational motions? soupination pronation internal/medial rotations external/lateral rotations
Internal/medial Rotation occurs when the anterior aspect of the limb rotates inward toward the ventral surface of the body
External/lateral Rotation occurs when the anterior aspect of the limb rotates outward toward (i.e: when you have your arms at your sides with the palms facing posteriorly, and switch the direction your palms are facing so that your body is in anatomical position)
Pronation a rotational movement of the forearm at the radioulnar joint; when standing in the anatomical position, pronation will move the palm of the hand from an anterior-facing position to a posterior-facing position without an associated movement at the shoulder
Supination the opposing rotational movement to pronation; supination will move the palm of the hand from a posterior-facing position to an anterior-facing position without an associated movement of the shoulder
Inversion the twisting motion of the sole towards the median plane
Eversion the twisting motion of the sole away from the median plane
Dorsiflexion (ankle flexion) Extension of the entire foot superiorly, effectively elevating the distal portion of the foot and the toes (i.e: digging in the heals or taking foot off gas pedal)
Planterflextion (ankle extension) Flexion of the entire foot inferiorly, effectively elevating the heel and proximal portion of the foot (i.e: standing on tiptoes or pressing down gas pedal)
protraction moving a part of the body anteriorly in the horizontal plane (i.e: grasping your upper lip with your lower teeth)
retraction moving a part of the body posteriorly in the horizontal plane (i.e: clavicles protract as you cross your arms)
Describe Plane / gliding joint and give an example of a body part The opposing surfaces at the articulation glide past one another in any direction but the amount of movement is slight due to ligaments. Plane joints can be found between the carpal bones, vertebral joints, and the tarsal bones.
Describe the type of movement allowed by a hinge joint, give an example location Hinge joints allow angluar movement in a singular plane. It can be monoaxial,which includes flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, or circumduction. Hinge joints can be found at the knee and the elbow.
Describe a pivot joint and give an example location of where a pivot joint is located Pivot joints are also monoaxial and only allow rotation. They can be found at the atlantoaxial joint, articulations between the radioulnar (pronation/ supination).
Descrive an Condylar/ ellipsoidal joint and give an example location of where an Condylar/ ellipsoidal is located joints consist of a bone that is oval, rests on a groove on the opposing surface. Angular motion only occurs in two planes, along/across length of the oval, which is a biaxial joint. Ellipsoidal joints can be found between phallanges and metacarpal bones
Describe a Ball-and-socket joint, give an example of a location where a Ball-and-socket joint can be found B&S joints consist of a round head of one bone that settles within a cup-shaped depression of another bone. All types of movements can be performed. The thumb joint allows reposition and opposition. Another examped is the shoulder and hip joints.
Describe the characteristics of muscle tissue in general Muscle tissue is specialized for contraction. There are four characteristics that all muscle tissue share. Excitability contractility extensibility Elasticity
Excitiability Response to stimulation
Extensibility Can be stretched to several times its original length and still contract when stimulated.
Elasticity Has the ability to rebound to its original length after contraction.
Contractility Capable of powerful contractions that shorten along its longitudinal axis
Skeletal Muscle Found attached to the skeleton and forming the body wall. The functions of skeletal muscle are; to produce movement, maintain posture and body position, support soft tissues, regulate the entering and exiting of materials, and help maintain body temp.
Cardiac Muscle Found only in the myocardium of the heart. Its function is to pump blood into the arteries.
Smooth Muscle Aka visceral muscle is located in the hallow visceral organs found in the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary organs, reproductive organs, and the blood vessels.SMT pushes fluids&solids through systems & regulates diameter of lumen
Define the various functional roles that muscles can play with the prime mover/agonist.example of a muscle that plays each of these roles (note:u must designate a joint&state the action being performed before u can assign functional roles to muscles.) Muscle Contracts to perform a specific movement, muscle is primarily responsible for that movement. Ex. The quadriceps muscles are the prime moversin the extension of the knee joint
Define the functional roles that muscles can play given a specific action at a designated joint: antagonist. Give an Ex of a muscle that playsroles (note:designate a joint&state the action being performed before assigning functional roles muscles.) Muscle performs opposite of agonist/P.M.This muscle is stretched when agonist is contracted.tension of antagonist will be adjusted to control speed of the movement&ensure smoothness.ex:The hamstrings R antagonists of quadriceps in extension of knee
Define thefunctional roles muscles can play Synergist. Give an Ex of a muscle that plays each of these roles (note: you must designate a joint and state the action being performed before you can assign functional roles to muscles.) Muscle contracts to help prime mover/agonist perform a movement.Also provide additional pull near the insertion or stabilize intermediate joints. Ex: The sartorius acts a synergist with the quadriceps to extend the knee
What is a muscle Fasicle? bundle of muscle fibers
What are the four main shapes of muscles? Parallel, convergent, pennate, and circular.
What is the shape and class of parallel muscles? -long axis of muscles runs parallel to fasicle -largest range of motion -firm attachment by tendon -
What is the shape and class of convergent muscles? -all fibers come togehter at attachment site -muscle fibers spread out -muscle can be pulled in many directions -muscles can all contract at once, doesnt pull as hard on the tendon bc the muscles on the other side of the tendon pulling a differentway
What is the shape and class of pennate muscles? -runs through the body of the muscle -fasciles form an oblique angle to the tendon -3 SUBTYPES 1.unnipennate-muscle fibers are located on both sides of tendon 2.bipennate-helps extend the knee 3.multipennate- tendons branch within muscles
What is the shape and class of circular muscles? -also known as sphincter muscle. -Fascicles are arranged around an opening/circle. -The diameter of the opening decreases when muscle contracts. -guards exit and entrance of internal pathways. -Which include the urinary and digestive tracts.
Define a neuromuscular junction (synapse) A NMJ is the site where where nerve impulses in the synaptic terminal communicate with skeletal muscle fibers and activate muscle contraction
What is another name for skeletal muscle fibers? myofibrils
What is the sarcolemma? cell membrane of a muscle fiber
What is the sarcoplasman? cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
Transverse tubules (T-tubules) a network of deep invaginations of sarcolemma that extend into the sarcolemma at right angles to the cell surface, and which conduct electrical impulses (action potentials) to the interior of the fiber in order to trigger muscle contractions.
Myofibrils each skeletal muscle fiber contains hundreds to thousands of these long, cylindrical, unbranched structures which are responsible for skeletal muscle contraction; comprise 80% of sarcoplasm
Myofilaments protein filaments consisting mostly of actin and myosin that bundle in a parallel fashion to form myofibrils and are organized in repeating units called sarcomeres
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) a membrane complex similar to the smooth ER of other cells with expanded ends called terminal cistern that store calcium
Triad: the combination of 2 adjacent terminal cisterns + their associated t-tubule; located superficial to the thick and thin filaments’ zone of overlap
Describe neural tissue Neural tissue is densely, packed cells that belong to the nervous system/ or that make up the nervous system
What are the two main cell types of neural tissue? 1.neurons 2.neuroglia
dendrites – usually short, abundant and highly branched. Its function is to carry stimulating (graded potential)
axons -long, unbranched fibers -attached to a soma by an axon hilock -The axon is surrounded by a cell membrane called an axolemma that has Na+ & K+ channels.
Telodendrion Nerve impulses start at the axon hilock and travel down to the telodendrion. The impulses swell inside the synaptic knobs of the telodenrion to release neurotransmitters These synaptic knobs participate in synapse/cell junction
neuroglia or glial cells -non-conductive, support cells that provide framework for the neural tissue, isolate neurons, help maintain the intercellular environment and act as phagocytes. -Smaller than neurons and are able to divide.
Created by: stephanie_ann



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