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Pol Sci

Test 2

Civil Rights Guaranteed protections by government against unreasonable discrimination by other individuals or groups
Reasonable-Bias Test discrimination can be considered reasonable if linked to legitimate gov. test. examples- drinking laws, income tax laws
Strict-Scrutiny Test Any law that discriminates on basis of race is subject to this. Discrimination based on race is illegal, unless there is a compelling gov't interest
Jim Crow Laws laws that permitted the segregation of races of races. example- separate schools, bathrooms, hospitals
Plessy vs. Ferguson Separate, but equal public facilities were equal, constitutional. supported jim crow laws
Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme court ruled that public school segregation of races violated 14th amendment (equal protection clause)
Dejure Segregation Seg. by law, busing permitted
De Facto Segregation Seg. by economics and personal choice- residential segregation, busing not permitted.
De Facto Segregation Ruling lead to "white flight" to suburbs and private schools to escape court ordered busing. Conclusion: can't force people to integrate
Missouri vs. Jenkins Supreme Court ruled that judges couldn't order other taxpayers in the state to finance improvements in inner city schools in order to attract students.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibited Discrimination in all public accommodations, banned employment discrimination based on race religion national origin and gender
Voting Rights Act of 1965 Prohibited use of any procedure that denied a person the right to vote based on a race, example literacy tests. 19th amendment, Equal Pay Act of 1963
Comparable Worth Equal pay for work requiring comparable skill, effort, and education. Limited success in courts
Affirmative Action Procedures/policies designed to compensate for past discrimination
Gratz vs. Bollinger In a 6-3 decision, the supreme court struck down the use of racial point system in school admin.
Grutter vs. Bollinger In a 5-4 decision, supreme court ruled that use of race as a factor (pos or neg) in school admin is legal. Achieving diversity in higher education was deemed a compelling gov't interest and did not unduly harm non-minority applicants
AA philosophy--Equality of Opportunity 14th amendment, civil rights act of 1964, each individual is responsible for their own success/failure on talent, work, ethic
AA philosophy--Equality of Results Social and economic justice. Gov't has responsibility to ensure this via programs such as affirmative action, income redistribution, social welfare programs
Is equality of results (AA) reverse discrimination? Violation of 14th amendment
Rogents of Univ. Of Cali vs. Bakke US davis medical school, only 100 admitted each year, 16 slots reserved for minority, struck down use of racial quotas in school admin, although suggested using race as a factor
Public Opinion What the public thinks about a particular issue, event, person at a particular point in time
Characteristics of Public Opinion 1. Direction, 2. Intensity, 3. Stability (trends), 4. Consistency
How is Public Opinion measured? Via survey or poll
Accuracy in measuring Public Opinion influenced by: -Sample size (larger is best) -Sampling Procedure (random) -Response rate (higher is better) -Representatives of sample (census data)
Focus Groups Understanding why people hold certain opinions. 8-12 people, 2 hour session, in-depth analysis
Political Socialization Process by which people acquire and develop their basic political opinions, beliefs, and attitudes
Factors that strongly influence political socialization 1. Family 2. School 3. Peer Groups 4. Media 5. Major Life/World Events 6. Opinion Leaders
Political Efficacy The degree to which one believes they can understand politics AND have an impact on the political process
Differences in U.S. Public Opinion 1. "Gender Gap" 2. Race/Ethnicity
Liberals Support 1. Large, powerful national gov't to regulate economy, healthcare, and environment 2. Social welfare policies assisting disadvantaged (medicaid, food stamps, Head Start, AA) 3. Policies to redistribute income through higher taxes on wealthy and corps.
Liberals Support 4. Decreases in military spending and size 5. Equality of opportunity and results
Conservatives Support 1. Smaller national gov't and greater reliance on market forces to generate jobs, provide healthcare 2. Fewer social welfare policies 3. Lower taxes overall, and tax breaks to encourage economic growth and job creation
Conservatives Support 4. Increases in military spending and size 5. Equality of opportunity BUT NOT results
Conservatives tend to be... Republicans
Liberals tend to be... Democrats
Best Predictors of Whether a Person Will Vote or Not 1. Education (best predictor) 2. Household Income 3. Age
Political Parties Organizations that seek to control and operate government by electing its people to public office (republican and democratic parties)
Party Realignment When the dominant majority political party is replaced by another political party during an election
Presidential Elections Every 4 years, 1st Tuesday in November
Congressional Elections Every 2 years, 1st Tuesday in November -all 435 seats -1/3 of senate seats -called mid-term or off-year if not during presidential cycle
Two Basic Types of Elections 1. Primary (nominating election-narrows the field) prior to general election 2. General (determines who will hold office)
Two Types of Primary 1. Closed (most common): Participation restricted to those registered with a particular party 2. Open: regardless of one's party ID, may vote in either party's primary BUT NOT both
Electing a president - Electoral College The first person to reach 270 votes wins. -if no one reaches 270, election decided in House of Reps
Interest groups Organizations that seek to influence gov't and its outputs/policies (labor unions, chamber of commerce, AARP)
Political parties seek to... Control government
Interest groups seek to... Influence government
How do Interest Groups (lobbyists) Influence the Government Decision Makers 1. Supply credible, dependable information 2. Campaign Contributions (political action committees) 3. Public Endorsements
How do Interest Groups (lobbyists) Influence the Government Decision Makers 4. Grassroot Mobilization (mobilize interest group members to contact elected officials) 5. Litigation (using the courts to influence public policy)
Created by: kst555
Popular American Government sets




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