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Anatomy Qtr 3

Not Including Guides & Limits

Name some characteristics of blood *pH = 7.35-7.45 *Viscosity = 3.3-5.5 *Temp. = 100.4*F *Vol. Adult Males= 5-6 liters *Vol. Adult Females= 4-5 liters
Name the 3 main types of plasma proteins *Albumin *Globulins *Fibrinogen
The plasma protein that controls osmotic pressure of the circulatory system Albumin
The plasma protein that transports antibodies (immunoglobulins) Globulins
The plasma protein that is the blood clotting elements Fibrinogen
Name some characteristics of RBCs *Erythrocytes *Oxygen transport *Hemoglobin *Biconcave Disc Shape *Lack mitochondria
Name some characteristics of WBCs *Leukocytes *Crucial to the bodies defense against disease *5 types of WBCs
Granulocytic WBC that destroys bacteria Neutrophils
Granulocytivc WBC that terminates the inflammatory response to allergic reactions & parasitic infections Eosinophils
Granulocytic WBC that directs the later stages of allergic reactions & parasitic infections Basophils
Agranulocytic WBC that is the most important of the immune system, Tcells & Bcells, function in the connective tissue Lymphocytes
Agranulocytic WBC that is the largest and transforms into macrophages Monocytes
To make blood Hematopoiesis
The site of blood cell formation Bone Marrow
All blood cells arise from these cells types Blood Stem Cell
Name the 2 types of blood stem cells Lymphoid & Myeloid
Which blood stem cell gives rise to lymphocytes? Lymphoid Stem Cells
Which blood stem cell gives rise to every other blood cell? Myeloid Stem Cells
Clotting Cells Platelets (Thrombocytes)
Sac around the heart Pericardium
Outer layer of connective tissue of pericardium Fibrous Pericardium
Deeper double layer located between the fibrous pericardium and the heart Serous Pericardium
External layer of the serous pericardium Parietal Layer
Internal layer of serous pericardium that lays on the heart Visceral Layer AKA Epicardium
Name the three layers of the heart wall *Epicardium *Myocardium *Endocardium
Internal longitudinal division of the atria Interatrial Septum
Internal longitudinal division of the ventricles Interventricular Septum
External groove that divides the atria from the ventricles Coronary Sulcus
External groove dividing the ventricles Anterior & Posterior Interventricular Sulci
Receiving chamber for oxygen poor blood returning from the systemic circuit; receives blood via three veins Right Atrium
Receives blood draining superior to the diaphragm, opening in the right atrium Superior Vena Cava
Receives blood draining inferior to the diaphragm, opening in the right atrium Inferior Vena Cava
Receives blood draining from the walls of the heart, opening in the right atrium Coronary Sinus
C-like structures marking the openings of the three vessels opening in the right atrium Crista Terminalis
Remnant of a fetal circulatory structure, foramen ovale Fossa Ovalis
Allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle Tricuspid Valve (Rt. AV Valve)
Internal Pacemaker found in the right atrium; crescent shaped mass of cells that lies just inferior to the entrance of the superior vena cava SA Node (sinoatrial node)
Pumps blood to the pulmonary circuit Right Ventricle
Cone shaped muscles projecting from the ventricular wall Papillary Muscles
Thin strong bands attached to the papillary muscles and the flaps of the tricuspid & bicuspid valves; prevents backflow into the atrium Chordae Tendineae
The valve located in the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk Pulmonary Valve (Pulmonary Semilunar Valve)
Recieves oxygen rich blood returning from the pulmonary circuit via 2 right & 2 left pulmonary veins Left Atrium
Valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle Mitral/Bicuspid/Left Atrioventricular Valve
Major vessel leaving the left ventricle Aorta
The valve located in the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta Aortic Valve (Aortic Semilunar Valve)
Extrinsic controls that can control the heart rate Innervation *Parasympathetic Fibers: slow the heart rate *Sympathetic Fibers: increase the heart rate
Vessels that provide blood supply to the walls of the heart itself Left & Right Coronary Arteries
Vessel that drains the blood supply from the walls of the heart itself Coronary Sinus
The study of blood Hematology
The study of the heart Cardiology
The study of blood vessels Angiology
The study of arteries Arteriology
The study of veins Phlebology
Innermost layer of of tissue of the blood vessels; smooth endothelium Tunica Intima
The middle layer of tissue of the blood vessels; smooth muscle Tunica Media
The outermost layer of tissue of the blood vessels; connective tissue that anchors and supports Tunica Adventitia (Externa)
The union of the distal ends of arteries and veins Anastomoses
Used in conjuction with anastomoses; refers to 2 or more vessels providing blood supply to the same body part Collateral Circulation
Vessels for vessels Vasa Vasorum
Branch from the pulmonary arteries, 3 right and 2 left Lobar Arteries
Name the 3 branches of the aortic arch Brachiocephalic Trunk, Left Common Carotid, Left Subclavian
Name the parietal branches of the descending thoracic aorta Post. Intercostal Arteries (9 pair) Subcostal Arteries (1 pair) Sup. Phrenic Arteries (1 pair)
Name the visceral branches of the descending thoracic aorta Esophageal Arteries (several pairs) Bronchial Arteries Pericardial Arteries
Name the parietal branches of the descending abdominal aorta Inf. Phrenic Arteries (1 pair) Lumbar Arteries (4 pair) Median Sacral Artery (unpaired)
Name the paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta Middle Suprarenal (1 pair) Renal Arteries (1 pair) Gonadal Arteries (1 pair)
Name the unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta Celiac Trunk (Left Gastric Artery, Splenic Artery, Common Hepatic) Superior Mesenteric Artery Inferior Mesenteric Artery
Name the 8 branches of the external carotid artery Facial, Post. Auricular, Ascending Pharyngeal, Superficial Temporal, Maxillary, Superior Thyroid, Lingual, Occipital Artery
Name the 4 branches of the internal carotid artery Opthalmic, Anterior Cerebral, Middle Cerebral, Anterior Communicating Artery
Name the 9 arteries that make up the Cerebral Arterial Circle (Circle of Willis) *Rt & Left Internal Carotid (2) *Ant. Communicating Artery *Rt & Left Ant. Cerebral Arteries (2) *Rt & Left Post. Cerebral Arteries (2) *Rt & Left Post. Communicating Arteries (2)
Unites the brain's anterior and posterior blood supplies provided by the internal carotid and vertebral arteries Circle of Willis
System that drains the intercostal spaces and empties into the superior vena cava Azygos System
Name the vessels of the Azygos System *Azygos Vein *Hemiazygos Vein *Accessory Azygos Vein
Name the veins of the thoracic region Two Vena cava, Coronary Sinus, Pulmonary Veins (2 rt, 2 left), Azygos System, Bronchial Vein, Esophageal Veins
Name the parietal veins of the abdominal region Lumbar Veins, Inferior Phrenic Veins
Name the visceral veins of the abdominal region Gonadal Veins, Renal Veins, Suprarenal, Hepatic Veins, Hepatic Portal System, Hepatic Portal Vein
Name the 3 veins that drain into the hepatic portal vein Splenic, Inferior Mesenteric, Superior Mesenteric Veins
What does the hepatic portal system drain? The organs of digestion
Name the veins of the head and neck region Dural Sinuses, External Jugular, Internal Jugular, Vertebral Veins
Name the superficial veins of the upper limbs Cephalic, Basilic, Medial Cubital Vein
Name the superficial veins of the lower extremities Great and Small Saphenous Vein
Name the 2 main differences between the fetal and postnatal circulation *Fetus supplies blood to the placenta *Placenta is the respiratory organ so the lungs don't need much blood
Name the remnant fetal structure of the Umbilical Arteries Medial Umbilical Ligaments
Name the remnant fetal structure of the Umbilical Vein Ligamentum Teres
Name the remnant fetal structure of the Ductus Venosus Ligamentum Venosum
Name the remnant fetal structure of the Foramen Ovale Fossa Ovalis
Name the remnant fetal structure of the Ductus Arteriosus Ligamentum Arteriosum
The lymphatic system is a ____ _____ system; flows only toward the heart One Way
Permeable vessels of the lymphatic system that receive tissue fluid Lymph Capillaries
Name the one set of lymph capillaries that receive digested fat from the small intestine Lacteals *Fatty Lymph=Chyle
Vessels that the lymph enters from the lymph capillaries Lymphatic Collecting Vessels
Cleanse and filter the lymph of pathogens; situated along the lymphatic collecting vessels; 500 of them Lymph Nodes
After leaving the lymph nodes, the largest lymphatic collecting vessels converge and form.... Lymph Trunks
Name the 5 major lymph trunks from inferior to superior Lumbar, Intestinal, Bronchomediastinal, Subclavian, Jugular
Lymph trunk located along the sides or the aorta in the inf. abdomen; recieves lymph from the lower limbs, pelvic organs, ant. abdominal wall Lumbar
Lymph trunk located near the post. abdominal wall in the midline; receives lymph from the stomach, fatty lymph, intestines, other digestive organs Intestinal
Lymph trunk located ascending near the sides of the trachea; receives lymph from the thoracic viscera and the thoracic wall Bronchomediastinal
Lymph trunk located at the base of the neck; receives lymph from the upper limbs, inferior neck, and the superior thoracic wall Subclavian
Lymph trunk located at the base of each jugular vein; receives lymph from the head and neck Jugular
Lymph trunks drain into the largest lymphatic vessels Lymph Ducts *some have two, some have one
Lymph duct present in all individuals; inferior part is located at the union of the lumbar & intestinal trunks (Cisterna Chyli); drains 3/4 of the body Thoracic Duct (Left Lymphatic Duct)
Some people have this short lymphatic duct that drains the upper right 1/4 of the body Right Lymphatic Duct
Name the most important tissue of the immune system Lymphoid Tissue
Name the 2 general locations of lymphoid tissue *MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) *All lymphoid organs except the thymus
Name the lymphoid organs Spleen, Lymph Nodes, Tonsils, Aggregated Lymphoid Nodules (peyer's patches), Appendix, Thymus
Where do most of the antigen challenges occur in the body? The Lymph Nodes
The largest lymphoid organ with 2 main blood cleansing functions, removal of blood-borne antigens & removal of aged and defective blood cells Spleen
Site of Tlymphocyte maturation; lies in the superior thorax and inf. neck; not a true lymphoid connective tissue Thymus
The simplest lymphoid organs arranged in a ring around the entrance to the pharynx; 4 groups (palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, tubal) Tonsils
Created by: sbarton



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