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nutrition and deficiencies

QuestionAnswer
nutrition the study of how your body uses the food you eat
malnutrition poor nutrition over an extended period
nutrient a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body
deficiency disease an illness caused by the lack of a sufficient amount of a nutrient
carbohydrate the body's chief source of energy
glucose a monosaccharide that serves as a constant and immediate source of energy for all body cells and tissues
fiber provides bulk in the diet
fat important energy source
fatty acid chemical chains containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
hydrogenation makes unsaturated fats solid
cholesterol a fat like substance found in every cell in the body
protein chemical compounds that are found in every body cell
amino acid small units that make up proteins
kwashiorkor a serious protein deficiency disease found in many underdeveloped areas of the world
vitamin one of the six basic types of nutrients that is a complex organic substance needed in small amounts for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction
fat-soluble vitamin vitamins that dissolve in fats
water-soluble vitamin vitamins that dissolve in water
supplement nutrient products added to the diet
night blindness a reduced ability to see in dim light due to vitamin A deficiency
rickets A disease resulting from a vitamin D deficiency, which is characterized by crooked legs and misshapen breast bones in children
scurvy a disease resulting from a vitamin C deficiency, which is characterized by bleeding gums, loss of teeth, and internal bleeding
beriberi a disease of the nervous system caused by a thiamin deficiency, which is characterized by numbness in the ankles and legs and severe cramping and paralysis
pellagra A disease caused by a deficiency off niacin, which is characterized by a raw and inflamed skin rash, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dementia, and paralysis
anemia Caused by folate deficiency, reduces the number of RBCs in the bloodstream
mineral one of the six basic types of nutrients that is an inorganic substance and becomes part of the bones, tissues, and body fluids
trace element a mineral like iron or iodine that is found in very small amounts in the body
osteoporosis A condition resulting from a calcium deficiency, which is characterized by porous, brittle bones
hypertension High blood pressure
goiter A visible enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from an iodine deficiency
digestion The bodily process of breaking food down into simpler compounds the body can use
absorption The process of taking nutrients into the body and making them part of the body
peristalsis A wavelike movement produced by the contracting of longitudinal and circular muscle fibers of the digestive tract, which pushes food through the tract
saliva A mucus- and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that makes food easier to swallow and begins to break down starches
metabolism The chemical processes that take place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrients
basal metabolism The amount of energy the human body needs to stay alive and carry on vital processes
Created by: raiver