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Ch.11/MED 126

The Blood

The general functions of blood are? Transportation, regulation, and protection
The function of blood is transportation of? Nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones
The function of blood is regulation of? Fluid-electrolyte balance, acid-bace balance, and body temperature
The function of blood is protection of? WBCs protect against pathogens, and blood clotting
The amount of blood within the body is in the range of? 4-6 liters
The blood cells make up __% to __% of the total blood? 38%-48%
Blood cells are called? Formed elements
The blood plasma makes up __% to __% of the total blood? 52%-62%
What blood is bright red because of oxygen? Arteriole
What blood is darker and looks blue under the skin? Venous
The normal pH range of blood is? 7.35-7.45
What blood usually has a slightly lower pH because of carbon dioxide? Venous
What is AKA thickness or resistance to flow? Viscosity
Viscosity is 3-5x ______ than water? Thicker
Viscosity is increased becaus of? Solids
The liquid part of the blood is called? Plasma
Blood plasma is approximately __% water? 91%
The water of plasma is a solvent, which means that substances may _______ in this water and be transported? Dissolve
The clotting factors for plasma proteins are? Prothrombin, fibrinogen
Prothrombin and fibrinogen are synthesized in the? Liver
What is the most abundant plasma protein? Albumin
Albumin is synthesized by the? Liver
What contributes to colloid osmotic pressure? Albumin
Alpha and beta globulins are made in the? Liver
What plasma proteins are carriers for fat and other molecules? Alpha and beta globulins
Gamma globulins are produced by? Lymphocytes
Gamma globulins are AKA? Antibodies
What plasma proteins initiate immunity? Gamma globulins
Plasma carries? Heat
What is a byproduct of exothermic decomposition reactions such as cell respiration? Heat
Blood can be redirected to various parts of the body to distribute heat to or from areas by ? Dialating or constricting vessels
The 3 types of blood cells are called? RBC, WBC, and platelets
RBCs, WBCs, and platelets are produced from _________ in hemopoietic tissue? Stem cells
The primary hemopoietic tissue is? Red bone marrow
The primary hemopoietic tissue is located in the _____ bones and ________ of long bones? Flat, epiphysis
What type of cells mature in or are produced in lymphatic tissue from stem cells? Lymphocytes
Lymphatic tissue is found in lymphatic organs such as the ______,_______, and _______? Spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus
T-lymphoctes are produced from stem cells in the? Thymus gland
RBCs are AKA? Erythrocytes
Describe the appearance of RBCs? Biconcave discs
What major cellular structure do mature RBCs lack? A nucleus
What is the measurement of RBCs called? Hematocrit
Centrifugation of blood forces formed elements to the? Bottom
The oxygen-carring protein in RBCs is? Hemoglobin
The oxygen-carrying mineral in hemoglobin is? Iron
There are ___ million Hb molecules/RBC? 300
Each Hb molecule can bind __ oxygen molecules? 4
RBCs pick up oxygen when they circulate through the pulmonary capillaries and this hemoglobin is now called a? Oxyhemoglobin
In the capillaries, Hb gives up its oxygen and becomes _______ Hb? Reduced
What mineral is essential for Hb formation? Iron
What mineral binds the oxygen and makes RBCs red? Iron
Hemoglobin can bind to ______ instead of oxygen? Carbon dioxide
The production and maturation of blood cells are produced from ________ in RBM called ________? Stem cells, hemocytoblasts
Several million cells produced each second are influenced by? Oxygen levels
Hypoxia causes the kidneys to produce the hormone? Erythropoiten
Erythropoiten increases hemocytoblast? Mitosis
What hormone is increased by things such as high altitude, bleeding, or exercise? Erythropoiten
In RBC formation, the last stage with a nucleus is called a? Normoblast
The stage in which fragments of the ER are present is called a? Reticulocyte
An important indicator of mature RBC volume can occur in conditions like? Hemorrhage, Rh disease of newborns, and malaria
Large numbers of reticulocytes or normoblasts in peripheral circulation are an indicator of? Low RBC numbers and therefore decreased oxygen carrying capability
What is necessary for hemoglobin synthesis? Protein and iron
What is part of common enzymes required for Hb sythesis? Copper
What is required for DNA synthesis in hemocytoblasts? Folate and B12
What is AKA extrinsic factor because it comes from our food? B12
B12 combines with _______ factor in the stomach which is produced in the parietal cells of the gastric pits? Intrinsic
The function of the intrinsic factor is to? Prevent the digestion of B12 and allow for absorption
Deficiency of extrinsic or intrinsic factor will lead to? Pernicious anemia
The life span of RBCs is approximately? 120 days
RBCs are removed from circulation by the? Tissue macrophage system
Macrophages (RE cells) that phagocytize old RBCs are found in the ______,______, and ______? Liver, spleen, and red bone marrow
Iron is reused or stored in the? Liver
What (protien portion) is also reused after being broken down into amino acids? Globin
What portion cannot be reused and is a waste product? Heme
What is converted to bilirubin by macrophages? Heme
What is excreted by the liver into bile and gives feces its brown color? Heme
Some bilirubin is converted to _______ by normal flora in the colon? Urobilin
Urobilin can be reabsorbed in the colon and is excreted by the _______ in urine? Kidneys
What is the buildup of bilirubin in the blood due to the liver disease or other disorder which causes yellowing of the skin and sclera due to bilirubin in the blood? Jaundice
Blood types are determine4d by? Antigens on the cell membrane
Each person has _______ to the antigens that each does not have? (e.g., type B has anti-A antibodies.) Antibodies
What is determining the blood type (antigens present) called? Transfusion
What is matching a donor to a recipient called? Cross-matching
Giving the wrong blood type is called? Typing
Typing leads to? Agglutination and hemolysis
Clumping is called? Agglutination
Destruction of the RBCs is called? Hemolysis
The Rh factor is AKA? D
Do Rh positive have Rh antigen? Yes
Do Rh negative have Rh antigen? No
Rh positive child born to Rh negative mother is called? Erythroblastosis fetalis
Erythroblastosis fetalis results in? Rh antibody production by the mother after birth
During erythroblastosis fetalis, antibodies will cross placenta dn injure the second child if? Rh positive
What injections are given after birth of first child to prevent antibody production by the mother? RhoGAM
An O negative blood type is called? Universal donor
What blood type has neither A or B antigens nor Rh factor? O negative
Will antibodies attach to O negative RBCs? No
WBCs are AKA? Leukocytes
WBCs are produced in? Red bone marrow
The 5 types of WBCs are identified by? Staining and looking at with a microscope
Are WBCs larger than RBCs? Yes
Many WBCs are not in the blood, but rather in the? Tissues
The 2 classifications of WBCs are called? Granular and Agranular
Granular usually have ______ nuclei? Segmented
Granular have ______ when stained? Granules
What are light blue granules called? Neutrophils
What are red granules called? Eosinophils
What are dark blue granules called? Basophils
What has no granules and non-segmented nuclei? Agranular
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are part of what WBC classification? Granular
Lymphocytes and monocytes are type of what WBC classification? Agranular
Some lymphocytes are produced in the? Lymphatic tissue
The differential WBC count is the ________ of each kind of leukocyte? Percentage
The functions of WBCs is to protect us from? Pathogens
The functions of WBCs are to provide _______ from certain diseases? Immunity
What WBC is most abundant and phagocytizes foreign particles labeled with antibodies? Neutrophils
What WBC is most efficient and differentiates into macrophages which can also phagocytize dead or damaged tissue during repair? Monocytes
What WBC detoxifies foreign proteins and phagocytizes foreign particles labeled with antibodies? Eosinophils
What WBC contains granules of heparin and histamine? Basophils
What is an anticoagulant? Heparin
What is released during inflammation? Histamine
What increases capillary permeabilty (swelling/edema)? Histamine
The 3 types of lymphocytes are called? T,B, and Natural Killer cells
What type of lymphocyte helps recognize foreign antigens and may help directly destroy cells with foreign antigens? T cells
What type of lymphocyte becomes plasma cells that produce antibodies to foreign antigens? B cells
What type of lymphocyte is far less numerous than T or B cells and chemically lyse foreign cell membranes? Natural killer cells
What leukocytes are stationary in specific organs? Fixed
Fixed lymphocytes are found in the? Liver, spleen, RBM, and lymph nodes
What leukocytes can squeeze between capillary endothelial cells into tissue? Fixed leukocytes
Some leukocytes are capable of locomotion by an _______ motion? Amoeboid
An increased WBC count that can indicate infection or leukemia is called? Leukocytosis
What is low WBC count called? Leukopenia
What can indicate disease (TB) or exposure to radiation or benzene? Leukopenia
WBCs have types like the RBCs called? Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)
Platelets are AKA? Thrombocytes
Fragments of cells called __________ circulate for 5-9 days? Megakaryocytes
Thrombopoietin is produced in the? Liver
Thrombopoietin increases? Thrombocytogenesis
What is a low platelet count called? Thrombocytopenia
The prevention of blood loss is called? Hemostasis
The 3 mechanisms for prevention of blood loss are? Vascular spasm, platelet plugs, and chemical clotting
What happends during vascular spasm? Myogenic response- smooth muscle in large arteries spasm to clamp off flow and platelets in the are release serotonin which causes vasoconstriction and allows clot to block flow
What happens with platelet plugs? When small vessels like capillaries break, negatively charged collagen fibers cause platelets to become spike and sticky
What happens during chemical clotting? negatively charged collagen fibers cause platelets to become spiky and sticky
Clotting is a sequence3 of chemical reactions called a? Cascade
What happens during stage 1 of clotting? Formation of prothrombin activator
What happens during stage 2 of clotting? Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin
What happens during stage 3 of clotting? Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
What is a thread-like protein, forms a mesh, and traps RBCs and platelets? Fibrin
What is the folding of fibrin fibers called? Clot retraction
What pulls edges of wound closer to make area of healing smaller? Clot retraction
What is Platelet derived growth factor? Chemical released by platelets that stimulate repair of blood vessels
The dissolution of the clot as healing takes place is called? Fibrinolysis
What prevents the initiation of clotting? Neutral charge and smoothness of endothelium of vessels
Heparin is released by? Basophils
Heparin is an? Anticoagulant
Anti-thrombin is produced by the? Liver
Anti-thrombin inactivates excess? Thrombin
What does excess thrombin cause? A positive feedback mechanism that converts more thrombin from prothrombin
Clotting an intact vessel is called? Thrombosis
The clot formed in the intact vessel is called? Thrombus
Thrombosis in the lower extremities is often caused by? Inactivity
A dislodged thrombus is called an? Embolism
What can cause an infarct elsewhere from the site of origin? Embolism
Created by: laceylake