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Chapter 11


The blood consists of __________, __________, and __________. RBCs, WBCs, platelets.
The amount of blood within the body ___________ with the size of a person. Varies.
The amount of blood within the body is in the range of _____ to _____ liters. 4-6.
The blood cells make up _____ to _____ of the total blood. 38%-48%.
The blood plasma makes up _____ to _____ of the total blood. 52%-62%.
The normal pH range of blood is ____ to ____. 7.35-7.45
The pH range is slightly ________. Alkaline.
The viscosity of blood refers to it's _______. Thickness.
The presence of ________ and ________ make blood more viscous than water. Blood cells, Plasma proteins.
Blood plasma is approximately ___ water. 91%
The water of plasma is a ________. Solvent.
Substances may _______ in the water of plasma and be transported. Dissolve.
Two types of substances that are transported in dissolved form in the plasma are ________ and ________. Nutrients, waste products.
Carbon dioxide is carried in the plasma in the form of ________ ions. Bicarbonate.
The chemical form of Bicabonate is _____. HCO3-
The plasma protein _______ is the most abundant plasma protein. Albumin.
The plasma protein _______ is only synthesized by the liver. Albumin.
The plasma protein _______ pulls tissue fluid into capillaries to maintain blood volume. Albumin.
The _________ help prevent blood loss when blood vessels rupture. Clotting factors.
The _________ include fibrinogen and prothrombin. Clotting factors.
The _________ are synthesized only by the liver. Clotting factors.
The plasma protein ________ include antibodies. Glogulins.
The _________ are synthesized by lymphocytes ot by the liver. Glogulins.
The plasma protein ________ include carrier molecules for fats in the blood. Glogulins.
The term hemopoietic tissue means a tissue in which _________ are formed. Blood cells.
Blood cells are formed in ________ tissue. Hemopoietic.
The primary hemopoietic tissue is ________. Red bone marrow.
Red bone marrow is found in ________ and _______ bones. Flat, irregular.
In the red bone marrow, the precursor cell for blood cells is called a _________. Stem cell.
Stem cells constantly undergo the process of ________ to produce new cells. Mitosis.
The types of blood cells formed in red bone marrow are ________, ________, and ________. RBCs, WBCs, platelets.
Lymphatic tissue is found in __________ organs. Lymphatic.
The lymphatic organs are the _______, _______, and _______. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus gland.
The stem cells of lymphatic tissue produce the WBCs called _________. Lymphocytes.
RBCs are also called _________. erythrocytes.
Erythrocytes (RBCs) are formed in ____________. Red bone marrow.
The major cellular structure mature RBCs lack is a ________. Nucleus.
The center of a RBC is ________ than the edge. Thinner.
The oxygen-carrying protein in RBCs is ________. Hemoglobin.
The oxygen-carrying mineral in hemoglobin is ________. Iron.
RBCs pick up oxygen when they circulate through the ________ capillaries. Pulmonary.
The pulmonary capillaries are in the _______. Lungs.
RBCs release oxygen in ________ capillaries. Systemic.
The major regulating factor for RBC production is the amount of ________ in the blood. Oxygen.
The term ________ means lack of oxygen/low blood oxygen level. Hypoxia.
When hypoxia occurs the kidneys produce a hormone called_________. Erythropoietin.
Erythropoietin stimulates the red bone marrow to increase the rate of ________ production. RBC.
In RBC formation, the last stage with a nucleus is called a ________. Normoblasts.
The stage in which fragments of ER are present is called a ________. Reticulocyte.
When immature RBCs are present in large numbers of circulating blood, it means that there are not enough ______ to transport sufficient _________ throughout the body. Mature RBCs, oxygen.
The nutrients needed for RBC formation include ________ and ________. Protein, iron.
The extrinsic factor is ________. Vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is needed for the synthesis of _____ by the stem cells in the red bone marrow. DNA.
The intrinsic factor is produced by the lining of the ________(organ). Stomach.
The function of the intrinsic factor is to prevent the digestion of ________ and promote its absorbtion in the ________ intestine. Vitamin B12, small.
The life span of RBCs is approximately ____ days. 120.
Macrophages(RE cells) that phagocytize old RBCs are found in the ________, ________, and ________. Liver, spleen, red bone marrow.
The iron from old RBCs may be stored in the ________. Liver.
The iron from old RBCs that is not stored in the liver may be transported to the __________ for the synthesis of new ________. Red bone marrow, hemoglobin.
The globin portion of the hemoglobin is digested to __________. Amino acids.
Amino acids may be used in the process of __________. Protein synthesis.
The heme portion of the hemoglobin of old RBCs is converted to _________. Bilirubin.
Bilirubin is considered to be a _________. Waste product.
Bilirubin is removed from circulation by the ________(organ) and excreted to ________. Liver, bile.
The colon eliminates bilirubin in ________. Feces.
When the blood level of bilirubin rises, the whites of the eyes appear yellow. This is called ________. Jaundice.
The range of a normal RBC count is ____ to ____ million cells/mL 4.5 - 6.0
The range of a normal hematocrit(Hct) is ____ to ____. 38%-48%
The range of a normal hemoglobin(Hb) level is ____ to ____ grams g/100mL. 12-18.
The two most important RBC types are the ____ group and the ____ factor. ABO, Rh.
The ABO group contains four blood types, which are ___, ___, ___, and ___. A, B, AB, O.
The Rh factor is another ____ antigen; and is often called ___. RBC, D.
A person who is Rh positive has this D antigen on the ____. RBCs.
A person who is Rh ________ does not have the D antigen on the RBCs. Negative.
White blood cells are also called ________. Luekocytes.
The five kinds of WBCs are in two groups called ________ and ________. Granular, agranular.
The granular WBCs are the ________, ________, and ________. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.
A ________ is a immature neutrophil. Band cell.
The agranular WBCs are the ________ and ________. Lymphocytes, monocytes.
WBCs have ________ present when the cells mature. Nuclei.
The general function of WBCs is to protect the body from _________and to provide _________. Infection, immunity.
What is the most abundant phagocyte? Neutrophils.
What WBC becomes macrophages to phagocytize pathogens or damaged tissue. Monocytes.
What lymphocyte helps recognize foreign antigens? T lymphocytes.
These lymphocytes become plasma cells that produce antibodies. B lymphocytes.
Basophils contain _________ to prevent abnormal blood clotting. Heparin.
Basophils contain _________, which contributes to inflammation. Histamine.
The WBCs that detoxify foreign proteins. Eosinphils.
The range of normal WBC count is _____ to _____ cells/mL. 5,000 - 10,000.
A high WBC count is called _________. Leukocytosis.
Leukocytosis often indicates ________. Infection.
A low WBC count is called _________. Leukopenia.
The normal range for Neutrophils is ____ to ____. 55% to 70%.
The normal range for Lymphocytes is ____ to ____. 20% to 35%.
The normal range for Monocytes is ____ to ____. 3% to 8%.
The normal range for Eosinophils is ____ to ____. 1% to 3%.
The normal range for Basophils is ____ to ____. 0.5% to 1%.
HLA are antigen found on _____. WBCs.
The normal purpose of HLA what? To provide a comparison for the immune system to be able to recognize foreign objects.
Platelets are also called ________. Thrombocytes.
The platelets thrombocytes are formed in ________. Red bone marrow.
Platelets are fragments of the large bone marrow cells called ________. Megakaryocytes.
What is produced by the liver and increases the rate of platelet formation? Thrombopoeitin.
The function of platelets is the ________ of ________ loss. Prevention, blood.
There are _______ mechanisms of hemostasis. Three.
The three mechanisms of hemostasis are ________, ________, and ________. Vascular spasm, platelet plugs, chemical clotting.
Vascular spasm is the mecahism of hemostasis necessary in large vessels that are ________ or ________. Ruptured, cut.
What tissue in arteries and veins permits them to constrict? Smooth muscle.
Smooth muscle contracts in response to ________. Serotonin released by platelets.
Platelet plugs are the only effective mechaism for rupture of ________(type of vessel). Capillaries.
The range of a normal platelet count is _____to _____ cells/mL. 150,000 - 300,000.
The term for a low platelet count is ________. Thrombocytopenia.
The stimulus for chemical clotting is ________ surface within a vessel or a break in a vessel that also creates a _______ surface. Rough, rough.
The clotting factors prothrombin and fibrinogen are synthesized by the _________. Liver.
Prothrombin and fibrinogen circulate in the ________ until activated in the clotting mechanism. Blood plasma.
The vitamin necessary for prothrombin synthesis is ________. Vitamin K.
Most vitamin K is produced by the bacteria in the persons own ________. Colon.
The mineral necessary for chemical clotting is ________. Calcium.
The body stores calcium in the ________. Bones.
Stage 1 of chemical clotting involves chemical factors released by ________ and other chemicals from ________ tissues. Platelets, damaged.
The result of stage 1 is the formation of ________. Prothrombin activator.
In stage 2 prothrombin acivator converts prothrombin to _______. Thrombin.
In stage 3 thrombin converts fibrinogen to ________. Fibrin.
The clot itself is made of ________. Fibrin.
The fibrin forms a mesh over the break in the ________. Vessel.
The process of clot ________ pulls the edges of the break in the vessel together. Retraction.
Once a clot has accomplished its function, it is dissolved in a process called ________. Fibrinolysis.
The endothelium(simple squamous) epithelium that lines blood vessels is very smooth and ________ platelets. Repels.
An anticoagulant produced by basophils is ________. Heparin..
Antithrombin is produced by the _______ to inactivate excess thrombin. Liver.
If excess thrombin is not activated, clotting may become a _________ cycle of harmful clotting. Viscious.
The term for an abnormal clot in an intact vessel is ________. Thrombus.
The term for a clot that dislodges and travels to another vessel is _________. Embolism.
The general functions of blood are ________, ________, and _________. Transportation, regulation, protection.
The blood is a transportation system for ________, ________, _________, __________. Nutrients, waste products, gases, hormomes.
Blood helps regulate _________. Body temperature.
White blood cells protect against _________. Pathogens.
Blood is _____ to _____ blood cells called ________. 38%-48%, formed elements.
The liquid part plasma makes up ____ to ____ of the blood. 52%-62%.
Arterial blood is bright _____ because of oxygen. Red.
Veinus blood is ________ and looks blue under the skin. Darker.
The pH of venous blood is usually slightly ________ because of carbon dioxide. Lower.
Blood is 3 to 5 times _________ thicker than water. Thicker.
Plasma is the ________ part of blood. Liquid.
Plasma is 91% ________. Water.
Plasma proteins contain the clotting factors ________, and ________. Prothrombin, fibrinogen.
Prothrombin and fibrinogen are syntesized by the ________. Liver.
Albumin is the most _________ plasma protein and is synthesized by the ________. Abundant, liver.
Albumin contributes to __________ pressure. Colloid osmotic.
Albumin pulls tissue(interstitial) fluid to the _________. Capillaries.
The globulins Alpha and Beta are made in the _______. Liver.
Alpha and Beta globulins are carriers for _________ and other molecules. Fat.
Gamma(antigens) produced by lymphocytes initiate ________. Immunity.
Blood can be redirected to various parts of the body to distribute _________ to or from areas by ________ or ________ vessels. Heat, dialating, constricting.
Blood cells are produced from _________. Stem cells.
Stem cells are in _________ tissue. Hemopoietic.
Red blood cells are found in _________ bone. Spongy.
Spongy bone located in _________ bones and ________ of _________ bones. Flat, epiphysis, long.
Lymphocytes mature in or are produced in _________ tissue from ________ cells. Lymphatic, stem.
Lymphocytes can be found in the ________, ________, and _________. Spleen, Thymus gland, lymph nodes.
T-lymphocytes are produced from stem cells in the ________. Thymus.
RBCs are the only cell with no __________. Neucleus.
The RBCs neucli __________ during development. Disintegrates.
Hematocrit is a measurement of ______. RBCs.
Created by: laceychapman



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