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Chapter 12

The Heart

QuestionAnswer
The function of the heart is to pump blood through the ____________,_____________, and ___________. Arteries, capillaries, and veins.
Where is the heart located? In the thoracic cavity between the lungs in the space called the mediostinum.
The heart is superior to what organ? The diaphragm.
The heart is enclosed in the __________ membranes. Pericardial.
The outermost of the pericardial membranes is the _______________. Fibrous pericardium.
The middle layer of the pericardial membranes is the ___________. Parietal pericardium.
The innermoost layer of the pericardial membranes is the _____________. Viseral pericardium.
There are __________ chambers of the heart. Four
The viseral pericardium is also called the ____________. Epiardium.
The function of the serous fluid of the pericardial membranes is to ___________________. Prevent friction.
The lining of the chambers of the heart is the _______________. Edocardium.
The endocardium is the ______________ of the heart. Lining.
The function of the endocarium is to ____________. Prevent abnormal clotting.
The myocardium forms the ______________ of the heart. Walls and chambers.
The wall and chambers of the heart are formed by the ___________________. Myocardium.
The layer of the heart that prevents abnormal clotting is the ______________. Endocardium.
The layer of the heart wall that pumps blood is the ______________. Myocardium.
The __________ returns blood from the upper body to the atrium. Superior vena cava.
The ______________ returns blood from the lower body to the right atrium. Inferior vena cava.
The _____________ returns blood from the lungs to the right atrium. Pulmonary veins.
The superior vena cava returns blood from the upper body to the ______________. Right atrium.
The inferior vena cava return blood from the lower body to the _________________. Right atrium.
The pulmonary veins returns blood from the lungs to the ____________. Left atrium.
The atria of the heart produce the hormone ______ when blood pressure is __________. ANP, increased.
The function of ANP is to increase the excretion of ___________ and ____________. Sodium ions, water.
The _____________ emerges from the left ventricle and takes blood to the ___________. Aorta, body.
The _____________ emerges from the right ventricle and takes blood to the _____________. Pulmonary arteries, lungs.
The aorta takes blood from the ___________ ventricle to the ____________. Left, body.
The pulmonary artery takes blood from the ___________ ventricle to the _____________. Right, lungs.
The ventricle that has thicker walls is the ____________. Left.
The left ventricle is thicker because it pumps blood to the _____________. Lungs.
The left ventricle pumps blood to the _____________. Aorta.
The right ventricle pumps blood to the ____________. Pulmonary artery.
The general function of all the valves of the heart is to _____________. Prevent backflow of blood.
Backflow of blood in the heart is prevented by __________. Valves.
What valve prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium. Mitral; left AV; bicuspid.
The mitral valve prevents backflow of blood from what ventricle to what atrium? Left ventricle, left atrium.
The _____________ valve prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium. Tricuspid; right AV.
What valve prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium? Tricuspid.
The right and left AV valves close when the ________ contract. Ventricles.
The right and left AV valves prevent backflow of blood from the ventricles to the _____________ when ______________ contracts. Atria, ventricles.
The aortic semilunar valve prevents backflow of blood from the ___________________ to the _____________. Aorta, left ventricle.
The pulmonary semilunar valvle prevents backflow of blood from the _____________ to the ____________. Pulmonary artery, right ventricle.
The aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves close when the ____________ relax. Ventricles.
The aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood from the ______________ to the ______________ when the ________________ relax. Arteries, ventricles, ventricles.
The coronary arteries are branches of the _____________. Aorta.
The aorta supply blood to the _____________. Myocardium.
The first branches of the ascending aorta are the _____________. Coronary arteries.
The coronary arteries take blood to the _______________. Myocardium.
The most important substance in the blood for the myocardium is ________________. Oxygen.
The coronary sinus is a union of the ______________ and returns blood to the ________________. Coronary veins, right atrium.
The term for conraction of the chambers of the heart is _____________. Systole.
The term for relaxation of the chambers of the heart is ______________. Diastole.
The term Systole means ____________ of the heart chambers. Contraction.
The term diastole means ______________ of the heart chambers. Relaxation.
Tne sequence of events in one heartbeat is called the ______________. Cardiac cycle.
During the cardiac cycle, the ______________ contract first, followed by contraction of the _______________. Atria, ventricles.
In the cardiac cycle, some passive blood flow accurs from the ________________ to the _________________. Atria, ventricles.
In the cardiac cycle, all the blood from the ventricles to the arteries must be ______________. Pumped.
In the cardiac cycle, the most important pumping of blood occurs from the _____________ to the _______________. Ventricles, arteries.
The heart is a double ______________. Pump.
The right side of the heart recieves blood from the ______________. Body.
The left side of the heart recieves blood from the ____________. Lungs.
The part of the heart that initiates each beat is the ______________. SA node.
The SA node is located in the ______________. Right atrium.
What is the normal resting heart rated for a healthy adult? 60 to 80 bpm.
The electrical impulses for the heartbeat pass from the ____________ of the atria to the ______________ of the ventricles. AV node, AV bundle (of His).
The parts of the cardiac conduction pathway in the ventricle, in order, are the ______________, ______________, and ______________. AV bundle, bundle branches, purkinje fibers.
The electrical activity of the heart may be seen in a tracing called________________. ECG.
The part of the heart that usually depolarizes first in a heartbeat is the _______________. SA node.
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in _____________. One minute.
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute is called ___________. Cardiac output.
Sroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in _____________. One beat.
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat is called _____________. Stroke volume.
To calculate cardiac output, multiply _____________ times ______________. Stroke volume, pulse.
If cardiac output is 4900 mL and pulse is 70 bpm, then the stroke volume is _____________. 70 mL.
If stroke volume is 80 mL and pulse is 70 bpm, then cardiac output is _______________. 56 mL.
If cardiac output is 6000 mL and stroke volume is 75 mL, then pulse is _______________. 80 bpm.
During exercise, if cardiac output is 15,000 mL and stroke volume is 120 mL, then the pulse is ________________. 125 bpm.
During exercise, if pulse is 140 and stroke volume is 110 mL, the cardiac output is _______________. 15,400 mL.
A basketball player has a resting cardiac output of 5400 mL, a stroke volume of 90 mL, and a resting pulse of _________________. 60 bpm.
A certian level of cardiac output is needed at all times to maintain a normal _______________. Blood pressure.
A certian level of cardiac output is needed at all times to deliver sufficent ______________ to all tissues. Oxygen.
The difference between the resting cardiac output and the maximum cardiac output is called the _______________. Cardiac reserve.
The percent of the blood in a ventricle that is pumped out during systole is called the ____________. Ejection fraction.
The part of the brain that regulates heart rate is the ______________. Medulla.
The heart rate is increased by impulses carried by _____________ nerves. Sympathetic.
Impulses carried by sympathetic nerves to the heart will ____________ the heart rate. Increase.
The heart rate is decreased by impulses carried by ____________ nerves. Parasympathetic (vagus).
Impulses carried by the vagus nerves to the heart will ______________ the heart rate. Decrease.
The carotid and aortic sinuses contain ____________. Pressoreceptors.
The pressoreceptors in the carotid and aortic sinuses detect changes in _________________. Blood pressure.
The carotid and aortic bodies contain _____________. Chemoreceptors.
Chemoreceptors detect changes in _____________. Blood oxygen level.
The sensory nerves for the carotid sinus and body are in _______________. Glossopharyngeal nerves.
The sensory nerves for the aortic sinus and body are in ___________________. Vagus nerves.
The carotid sinus is strategically located to detect changes as the blood is on its way to the ___________________. Brain.
The aortic sinus is strategically located to detect changes as soon as the blood leaves the ______________. Heart.
A sudden drop in blood pressure will stimulate the cardiac _______________ center in the _______________ of the brain. Accelerator, medulla.
The response to a sudden drop in blood pressure is a rapid _________________ in heart rate. Increase.
What is the function of serous fluid produced by serous layers? To prevent friction as the heart beats.
The _______________ valve is between the right atrium and right ventricle. Tricuspid.
The tricuspid valve prevents backflow of blood to the _____________ when the _____________ contracts. Right atrium, right ventricle.
Where is the mitral valve located? Between the left atrium and left ventricle.
The mitral valve prevents backflow of blood to the ________________when the _____________ contracts. Left atrium, left ventricle.
Where is the pulmonary semilunar valve located? At the junction of the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backflow of blood to the _____________ when the ventricle _______________. Right ventricle, relaxes.
Where is the aortic semilunar valve loceted? At the junction of the left ventricle and the aorta.
The aortic semilunar valve prevents backflow of blood to the _____________ ventricle when the ventrcile _______________. Left, relaxes.
The papillary muscles are colums of _______________. Myocardium.
The colums of papillary muscles project into each ________________ of the heart. ventricle.
The chordae tendineae are strands of _______________. Fibrous connective tissue.
The chordae tendineae extend from the papillary muscles to the ________________. Tricuspid valve.
The atria secrete a hormone called _____________. Atrial natriuretic peptide.
ANP causes the kidney to excrete ____________ and ______________. Sodium ions, water.
When the kidney excrete sodium ions and water this lowers _____________ and ______________. Blood volume, blood pressure.
The purpose of the coronary vessels is to. Supply the myocardium with blood.
The most important substance in blood is what? Oxygen.
The right and left coronary arteries are branches of the _________________. Asending aorta.
The coronary sinus is formed by the union of ________________. Coronay veins.
The coronary veins return blood from the myocardium to the _____________. Right atrium.
The cardiac cycle is the term for the sequence of events in one _____________. Heart beat.
The term systole means. Contraction.
The term diastole means. Relaxation.
Most blood flows ______________ from the atria to the ventricles. Passively.
All blood is ________________ from ventricles to arteries. Pumped.
The cardiac cycle normally creates ____________ heart sounds. (#) 2.
The first sound is caused by the closure of the __________________. AV valves.
The second sound is caused by the closure of the _______________. Semilunar valve.
An extra sound heard during the cardiac cycle is called a _______________. Heart mur-mur.
What is the cardiac conduction pathway? A pathway of electrical impulses throughout the heart during each heartbeat.
Nerve impulses only regulate the _____________ of contraction. Rate.
The __________________ initiates each heartbeat. SA node.
The SA node has the most _______________ rate of contraction. Rapid.
The parts of the conduction pathway that bring about atrial systole are the ________________ and the ________________. SA node, AV node.
The parts of the conduction pathway that bring about ventricular systole are the ______________, _________________, and the ______________. Bundle of His, bundle branches, purkinje fibers.
The electrical activity can be recorded and depicted in an ____________________. Electrocardiogram (ECG).
The term for an irregular heartbeat is called _____________. Arrhythmias.
The most serious arrhythmia is _______________. Fibrillation.
The vital sign that is a measure of heart rate is _______________. Pulse.
Infant and children usually have __________ heart rates than adults. Higher.
Athletes in good physical condition often have _____________ heart rates than other adults. Lower.
The cardiac centers are located in the ______________ of the brain. Medulla.
The two cardiac centers of the brain are called _____________ and _____________ centers. Accelorator, inhibitory.
The hormone that increases heart rate and force of contraction in stressful situations is _______________. Epinephrine.
Epinephrine is secreted by the ______________. Adrenal medulla.
Created by: laceychapman