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MLE-Digestive System

vocabulary words concerning the digestive system

Ingestion to take into the body by the mouth for digestion or absorption; to take in and absorb as food
Digestion the bodily process of breaking down foods chemically and mechanically
Absorption passage of a substance into or across a blood vessel or membrane
Defecation/Elimination the elimination of the contents of the bowels (feces)
Mechanical Digestion/Mastication the act of chewing;
Esophagus the muscular membranous tube for the passage of food from the pharynx to the stomach; the gullet
Incisor a tooth adapted for cutting or gnawing, located at the front of the mouth along the apex of the dental arch
Bicuspid tooth having two points or cusps
Molar a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food, located behind the premolars
Canines one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars; used for biting and chewing, and also tearing meat, also used for attack or defense
Gingiva the gums
Dentin the calcified tissue forming the major part of a tooth; deep to the enamel
Pulp the soft tissue forming the inner structure of a tooth and containing nerves and blood vessels
Crown the part of a tooth that is covered by enamel and projects beyond the gum line; an artificial substitute for the natural crown of a tooth.
Neck the part of a tooth between the crown and the root
Root the embedded part of an organ or structure such as a hair, tooth, or nerve, that serves as a base or support
Saliva the secretion of salivary glands ducted into the mouth
Bolus a rounded mass of food prepared by the mouth for swallowing
Pharynx the muscular tube extending from the posterior of the nasal cavities to the esophagus
Peristalsis the waves of contraction seen in tubelike organs; propels substances along the tract
Chyme the semifluid stomach contents consisting of partially digested food and gastric secretions
Pyloric sphincter also known as a valve; is a strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the pyloric canal and lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum; it receives sympathetic innervation from celiac ganglion
Pepsin an enzyme capable of digesting proteins in an acid pH
Gastrin a hormone that stimulates gastric secretion, especially hydrochloric acid release
Hepatocytes is a cell of the main tissue of the liver; theymake up 70-80% of the liver's cytoplasmic mass; also initiates formation and secretion of bile
Bile a greenish-yellow or brownish fluid produced in and secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine
Lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester chemical bonds in water-insoluble lipid substrates; perform essential roles in the digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids
Amylase is an enzyme that breaks starch down into sugar; is present in human saliva, where it begins the chemical process of digestion
Duodenum the first part of the small intestine
Jejunum the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
Colon is the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates; it extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body
Ileum the terminal part of the small intestine; between the jejunum and the cecum of the large intestine
Villi fingerlike projections of the small intestine mucosa that tremendously increase its surface area for absorption
Gastric derived from the Greek word meaning related to the stomach
Insulin the hypoglycemic hormone produced in the pancreas affecting carbohydrate and fat metabolism, blood glucose levels, and other systemic processes
Trypsin is a serine protease found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyses proteins; produced in the pancreas
Created by: McKayla Edmonds



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