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medical terms and anatomy

homeostasis Process to maintain a constant internal environment
Kidneys Filter blood to remove waste and excess water
Renal Pertaining to the kidney
Cortex outer region of the kidney
Medulla inner region of the kidney and it contains most of the urine collecting tubules
Hilum Indentation of the kidney where the renal artery and renal vein enter
nephron Microscopic functional units of the kidney
glomerulus Little ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
Bowman's capsule Top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
Filtration blood enters the kidney with waste products which are filtered out in the nephron
Renal pelvis funnel shaped area of the kidney where newly formed urine collects
creatinine Waste product of muscle metabolism filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine
ureter Tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
Bladder Hollow muscular organ which holds the urine before it is excreted
Rugae Folds that allow bladder to expand and contract
Void Urination
urethra Single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
Urinary meatus External opening of the urethra
Urine 95%water and 5% other wastes
cystitis Inflammation of the bladder
nephritis Inflammation of the kidney
Renal Calculi Presence of renal stone or stones caused by mineral buildup in the kidneys
Renal Failure Inability of the kidneys to perform their functions
polyuria Condition of excessive urination
oliguria Scanty production of urine
anuria Absence of urine formation
pyuria Presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
nocturia Urination at night
dysuria Painful urination
hematuria Presence of blood in the urine
nocturnal enuresis Bed wetting during sleep
incontinence Involuntary discharge of urine or feces
Urinary retention Inability to empty the bladder
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the renal pelvis
urinary tract infection (UTI) Invasion of pathogenic organisms (commonly bacteria) in the structures of the urinary tract, especially the urethra and bladder; symptoms include
cystoscopy Examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
urinalysis (UA) Physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine
specific gravity (SpGr) Measure of the kidney's ability to concentrate or dilute urine
nitrite Chemical test used to detect bacteria in the urine
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood - a high value indicates the kidney's inability to excrete urea
urine culture and sensitivity (C & S) Isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium that propagates the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identified, and drugs to which they are sensitive are listed
hemodialysis Method to remove impurities by pumping the patient's blood through a dialyzer, the specialized filter of the artificial kidney machine (hemodialyzer)
peritoneal dialysis Method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; catheter insertion in the peritoneal cavity is required to deliver cleansing fluid (dialysate) that is washed in and out in cycles
Foley catheter Indwelling catheter inserted through the urethra into the bladder; includes a collection system that allows urine to be drained into a bag - can remain in place for an extended time
suprapubic catheter Indwelling catheter inserted directly into the bladder through an abdominal incision above the pubic bone; includes a collection system that allows urine to be drained into a bag - used in patients requiring long-term catheterization
kidney transplant graft of a donor kidney to replace a failed kidney
lithotripsy to crush a stone
nephro/o, ren/o Kidneys
pyel/o Renal pelvis
ur/o, urin/o Urine
ureter/o Ureters
cyst/o Urinary Bladder
urethr/o Urethra
prostat/o Prostate
Created by: cudawn



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