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Barrons (Chapter 6)

Mrs. Kidd's AP HG

Grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources. Agglomeration
Economic activities that surround and support large-scale industries such as shipping and food service. Ancillary activities
Human-centered; in sustainable development, this refers to ideas that focus solely on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the planet or the ecosystems upon which we depend. Anthropocentric
The negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region. Backwash effect
A location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers for delivery to local markets. Break-bulk point
Traditional businesses with actual stores in which trade or retail occurs; it does not exist solely on the Internet. Brick-and-mortar business
Industries whose products weigh more after assembly than they did previously in their constituent parts. Such industries tend to have production facilities close to their markets. Bulk gaining industries
A firm that is comprised of many smaller firms that serve several different functions. Conglomerate corporation
National or global regions where economic power, in terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology is concentrated. Core
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region. Core-periphery model
An industry in which to production of goods and services is based in homes, as opposed to factories. Cottage industry
The dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration Deglomeration
Loss of industrial activity in a region. Deindustrailization
The process of economic growth, expansion, or realization of regional resource potential. Development
Web-based economic activities. E-commerce
Regions that fail to gain from national economic development. Economic backwaters
A form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way. Ecotourism
Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries. Export-processing zone
Areas of the world, usually the economic core, that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportation technologies. Fast world
Manufacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the firm. Footloose firms
System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford. Fordism
Overseas business investments made by private companies. Foreign investment
A measure of the opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country. Gender equity
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete. Globalization
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year. Gross Domestic Product
The total value of goods and services, including income recieved from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year. Gross National Product
Measure used by the United Nations that calculates development not in terms of money or productivity but in terms of human welfare. It evaluates human welfare based on three parameters: life expectancy, education, and income. Human Development Index
The rapid economic and social changes in manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry in England at the end of the 18th century. Industrial Revolution
Process of industrial development in which countries evolve econimically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. Industrialization
Those countries including Britain, France, the United States, Russia, Germany, and Japan, that were all at the forefront of industrial production and innovation through the middle of the 20th century. Industrialized countries
A concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration. Least-cost theory
Those countries including countries in Africa, except for South Africa, and parts of South America and Asia, that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. Least-developed countries
A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. Manufacturing region
Those U.S. firms that have factories just outside the United States/Mexican border in areas that have been specially designated by the Mexican government. In such areas, factories cheaply assemble goods for export back into the United States. Maquiladoras
A measure of all goods and services produced by a country in a year, including production from its investments abroad, minus the loss or degradation of natural resource capital as a result of productivity. Net National Product
Natural resources, such as fossil fuels, that do not replenish themselves in a timeframe that is relevant for human consumption. Nonrenewable resources
Areas that have been specially designed to promote business transaction, and thus have become centers for banking and finance. Offshore financial center
Sending industrial processes out for external production. Outsourcing
Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. Periphery
Economic activities in which natural resources are made available for use or further processing, including mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Primary economic activities
A measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country. Productivity
A monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries. Purchasing Power Parity
Economic activities concerned with research, information gathering, and administration. Quaternary econimic activities
The most advanced form of quaternary activities consisting of high-level decision making for large corporations or high-level scientific research. Quinary economic activities
The process by which specific regions aquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country. Regionalization
Any natural resource that can replenish itself in a relatively short period of time, usually no longer than the length of a human life. Renewable resources
A model of economic development that describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed to most-developed countries. Rostow's stages of development
The manufacturing region in the United States that is currently deliberated because many manufacturing firms have relocated to countries offering cheap labor and relaxed environmental regulations. Rust Belt
Economic activities concerned with the processing of raw materials such as manufacturing, construction, and power generation. Secondary economic activities
Those newly industrialized countries with median standards of living, such as Chile, Brazil, India, China, and Indonesia. Semi-periphery
Highly developed economies that focus on research and development, marketing, tourism, sales, and telecommunications. Service-based economies
The developing world that does not experience the benefits of highspeed telecommunications and tranportation technology. Slow world
An input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located. Spatially fixed costs
An input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its total amount and in its relative share of total costs. Spatially variable costs
Goods that are not mass produced but rather assembled individually or in small quatities. Specialty goods
The idea that people living today should be able to meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same. Sustainable development
Activities that provide the market exchange of goods and that bring together consumers and providers of services such as retail, transportation, government, personal, and professional services. Tertiary economic activities
A firm that conducts business in at least two seperate countries; also known as multinational corporations. Transnational corporation
A group of cities that form an interconected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce. World cities
Theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein that explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery in terms of economic and political connections. maintained through incre World-systems theory
Created by: hmartin
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