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3D052 Volume 2

Servers & Directory Services

QuestionAnswer
What is the first job of the BIOS at system startup? Run the power-on self-test (POST).
What does the CMOS store and what other component uses this information? The configuration information about the computer; BIOS.
How is main memory distinguished from secondary memory? By the speed between the main and secondary memory.
When power is removed from the computer, what happens to the stored information in ROM? Its contents remain in memory.
Why is RAM considered as volatile memory? Because the contents are erased (lost) from memory.
How are dynamic RAM and static RAM different? DRAM chips must be refreshed constantly or they lose their contents. SRAM chips will hold their data without needing to be refreshed as long as power is supplied, thus the term static is used.
What is cache memory and what is normally stored in it? Temporary storage area; a collection of data duplicating original values.
What is the main goal of buffers? To temporarily hold data used by some type of hardware device until the device is ready to utilize the data.
What is the purpose of the DMA controller? To move data and to freeing up the CPU to process data.
Define an interrupt. An asynchronous signal from a computer hardware device indicating the need for attention (from the CPU) or a synchronous event in a software application program indicating the need for a change in execution.
How are interrupts commonly used? For computer multitasking, especially in real-time computing.
Describe data integrity in a simple manner. The assurance that data is consistent, correct, and accessible.
What is parity? A method in which the computer ensures the data it processes is accurate.
What is the difference between error correction code (ECC) memory and the parity method? The parity method can only detect an error while ECC memory can both detect and correct errors.
Give three examples of storage devices that can be placed in a SAN. Disk arrays, CD/DVD towers, tape libraries.
How can using a SAN make equipment failure easier to repair? The data does not need to be affected; you can replace only the server.
What are the three protocols listed that support a SAN? Fibre Channel, ATA over Ethernet, iSCSI.
How does a SAN and a NAS differ? A SAN appears to the server to be physically attached; the NAS is treated as a network drive.
Why is a hardware implementation of RAID preferred over a software version? It does not require CPU time as the controller card has a processer on board. Second, a hardware RAID can be set to boot off of the array. Third, the controller card usually has its own I/O cache, so the system does not devote resources to data flow.
What are the three concepts of RAID? Mirroring, striping, and error correction.
Why is RAID 5 considered to be more efficient when it comes to parity checks? Because you do not need separate hard drives for parity checks.
What are “nested RAID arrays? Because one array type is “nested” within another array type.
What are some characteristics of HOLs? They use English-like statements to increase user understanding, are nearly self-documenting, and permit the use of most scientific and mathematic notations. Programs written for one computer can usually be used on another computer with few changes.
Name four HOLs and give a reason for using each. FORTRAN: For numeric equations. COBOL: Language of choice for writing programs to produce reports or formatted output products. Ada: For embedded computer applications, DOD MCS. Pascal: Used to teach PL, developed into an easy and powerful language.
What are some characteristics of assembler language? Instead of writing English-like statements, the programmer writes mnemonics, which are converted directly to machine language by a language processor. These languages are machine specific.
What is machine code? Instructions written or existing in a form acceptable by a computer.
What is the distinction of an interpreted language? No permanent object code is produced.
What is the European Organization for Nuclear Research commonly known as? CERN, is the world’s largest particle physics laboratory.
How would you best describe a URL? The address of a file or resource accessible on the Internet.
What is HTML? The set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a Web browser page.
What significant role will XHTML play in the future? Most likely to succeed HTML for Internet purposes.
Describe CGI. A standard method for a Web server to pass a Web user’s request to an application program and to exchange data back to the user.
Define secure socket layer. A commonly used protocol for managing the security of a message transmission on the Internet. A forerunner will likely be TLS, which is based on SSL architecture. SSL uses a program layer located between the Internet's HTTP and TCP layers.
What is session management? Session management is the process of keeping track of a user’s activity across sessions of interaction with the computer system.
Why is session management useful when using the internet? Without it, you would have to re-authenticate yourself every time you clicked on a hyperlink, rendering the internet almost useless for secure communications.
Give an example of a session management used for security? With some Websites, for security reasons, the session is terminated after a period of time of inactivity, say ten minutes. After that, you must re-authenticate yourself to the server.
What are the methods of optimizing your system? Task manager, disk defragmenter, chkdsk, and disk quotas.
What triggers can you set the task manager to launch a program on? Daily, weekly, monthly, one time only, when the computer starts, and when you log on.
What would happen if you tried to run CHKDSK while you were using the system? If any files or applications are running, check disk informs you it could not gain exclusive access to the drive. It then asks if you want to schedule check disk to run the next time your computer starts. The answer would be “Yes.”
How does defragmenting improve your systems performance? Gathers all the pieces of files and folders, reorganizes things a little and rewrites the files and folders in a continuous fashion. In other words, it puts all the pages back in order with one beginning and one ending.
How can you best describe a radix and what does it indicate? Also known as the base and indicates the number of digits used in a particular numbering system.
What is an exponent and what does it indicate? Written as a superscript, located on the upper right side of the number. An exponent indicates how many times a number is to be multiplied by itself. The value of the exponent is known as the power.
Explain the difference between the most and least significant digits. The MSD is the left most nonzero digit of a numeric value. The MSD is the digit that expresses the greatest possible value. The LSD is the rightmost digit of a numeric value to include zeros.
State the purpose of a fractional point. The point that separates the whole portion of the number from the fractional portion of a number.
State how you would convert a decimal number to a binary equivalent. Divide the decimal value by the base value (2). The remainder then becomes the LSD. Next, divide the result again by the base, and the remainder becomes the digit to the left of the LSD. Continue this pattern until the result is zero.
State how you would convert a binary number to a hexadecimal equivalent. Separate the binary number into groups of four. To come up with the result, add the decimal value of each bit containing a one and convert the sum to a valid hexadecimal digit. Then combine the digits together to form one hexadecimal number.
State how you would convert a decimal number to a hexadecimal equivalent. Divide the decimal number by the base (16). The remainder is the LSD. Then, divide the result by the base again. The remainder becomes the digit to the left of the LSD. Continue this process until the result is zero.
From an IT contingency planning perspective, what are the two primary functions of risk management? First, Identify threats and vulnerabilities so that appropriate controls can be put into place to either prevent incidents from happening, or to limit the effects of an incident. Second, Identify residual risks for which contingency plans must be placed.
Describe the three main classifications of threat. Natural - Hurricane, tornado, flood, and fire. Human - Operator error, sabotage, implant of malicious code, and terrorist attacks. Environmental - Equipment failure, software error, telecommunications network outage, and electric power failure.
Describe a COOP. Focuses on restoring an organization’s (usually a headquarters element) essential functions at an alternate site and performing those functions for up to 30 days before returning to normal operations.
What should a contingency plan spell out? What systems are prioritized in what order for the basis of protecting those systems from disasters and contingency and for bringing those systems back online after a disaster/contingency.
What criteria should you consider when selecting an offsite storage facility? Geographic area, accessibility, security, environment, and cost.
Name the five types of alternate sites. Cold, warm, hot, mobile, and mirrored sites.
Why should you focus most of your backup efforts on data instead of programs? Data that is unique and software can always be re-loaded.
What three factors is the choice of backup media based on? Size, cost, and speed.
Name the four different types of backup you can schedule. Full (also known as normal), differential, incremental, and daily.
Why should you keep a copy of your backups at an alternate location? The problem or damage effects only your primary site and not your offsite.
What is the key to understanding AD? Understanding AD structural terms.
What may be contained within objects? Objects are logical network resources in your network environment that may contain many types of objects in your network, such as network users, computers, printers, groups, data files, applications and the attributes of those objects.
Why is the global catalog server a critical component in a domain? They have a “master list” of all AD objects from all domains in the forest.
What are the five FSMO roles responsible for? Schema-Updates directory schema. Domain Naming–Makes changes to the forest-wide domain name space. RID–Processes relative ID pool requests. PDC Emulator–Authority for the W32Time service. Infrastructure–Updates objects SID and distinguished name.
What are GPOs applied against? ”Leaf objects”, such as users and computers, but not security or distribution groups.
Which command do you use to launch the AD Installation Wizard to promote a server to a domain controller? The DCPROMO command.
When can a command line interface be better than a GUI? It uses less RAM and less power from the microprocessor than any other interface.
What is the biggest advantage of a GUI? A GUI is the most user friendly of all interfaces.
What are the four elements most GUIs are composed of? The four elements of most GUIs are Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointing devices.
What are the two methods of installing Windows Server 2003? The two methods of installing Windows Server 2003 are attended and unattended.
What is the difference between a hot fix and a service pack? A hot fix is usually a program created by Microsoft to quickly fix a specific problem with one of their products. The Service Pack provides a collection of fixes in the following areas: security, application compatibility, OS reliability, and setup.
How do the three components of DNS work together? The way these three work together is that a resolver needs to look-up domain name information. It sends the request to the name server, which reviews its records to find the information, and then it passes the required information back to the resolver.
How are a forward lookup and a reverse lookup different? Unlike forward lookups, where you provide a domain name and request an I/P address, a reverse lookup allows you to specify an IP address, and the DNS server returns the hostname defined for it.
How do recursive queries and non-recursive queries differ? Where recursive queries are made by client applications, non-recursive queries are made by name servers to other name servers.
Explain the importance, in DNS, of the “root” In DNS, the root consists of 13 name server clusters located world-wide. These servers form the upper most layer of the DNS namespace.
What three things must Air Force DNS servers do? (1) Provide reverse lookup capability, i.e. reside on the in-addr.arpa domain. (2) Allow zone transfers only between the primary and secondary name servers. (3) Run only the DNS service. All unnecessary services will be turned off on the name servers.
What does a DHCP server do? A DHCP server is a file server which manages a pool of IP addresses (known as a scope) available for lease by authorized clients for a specific period of time.
What must you be aware of when using more than one DHCP server on a network? Make sure each scope is unique so you do not cause the creation of duplicate IP addresses.
What does Air Force Policy say about using DHCP? Manage all base IP address space through utilization of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP will allocate dynamic IP addresses for: (1) All noncritical workstations connected to the internal base network. (2) Remote Access Clients.
According to Air Force policy, how long should noncritical workstations’ IP addresses be leased for? 30 days.
What type of service allows network administrators to install upgrades on any number of client computers at one time from a centralized location? It allows network administrators to install the Windows Client Software and its upgrades to any number of client computers at one time from a centralized location.
On what servers can you install RIS? It can be installed on any server that meets the Windows Server 2003 minimum requirements.
What directory does the RIS service default to? It defaults to a directory named \RemoteInstall.
When deciding on a default directory for RIS, what are the two rules you must follow? The directory has to be on a partition other than the partition that holds the Windows Server 2003 operating system and must be formatted with NTFS.
What are the services that IIS can provide? World Wide Web publishing services, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) services, Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) services, and Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) services.
Why is IIS 6.0 not activated automatically? The reason for this is that hackers have learned to look for IIS services running with their default setup, which allowed them a method of access. By locking IIS down by default, it greatly reduces the number of access points for hackers.
What are IIS’s components? a) World Wide Web Server. b) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. c) Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). d) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Server. e) Internet Information Services Snap-in. f) Internet Services Manager.
What is usually the sole purpose of installing IIS on an Air Force server? To facilitate the installation of Microsoft Exchange Server.
Explain what a snap-in is. A snap-in is an interface for a program designed to integrate with the MMC.
As an administrator, how would MMC make accomplishing your duties easier? It simplifies the management of the server and network.
What are the two places a user account can be created? On a local computer or a domain controller.
What is the difference between Permissions and Rights? Permissions control access to an object, such as a folder or file. Rights enable a user account or group to perform predefined tasks.
Where is a domain user account valid? On any computer in the domain for which the account was created.
Which snap-in to the MMC would you use to create a new user account? You use the AD Users and Computers snap-in to the MMC to create a domain user account.
Why would you use group nesting? To simplify and reduce security management overhead.
What scopes can apply to special identities? None, group scopes do not apply to special identities.
What do permissions define? Rules by which operations can be performed on a particular resource.
What is the only way to secure resources on FAT partitions? By sharing resources.
What are the four shared folder permissions? Full control, Change, Read, and No Access.
Which permission over rides all others? The “No Access” permission always overrides all other permissions assigned to a user or group to which the user belongs.
What are the six NTFS permissions? Read, Write, Execute, Delete, Change permission, and Take Ownership.
Why would you remove full control permission from the everyone group? With this permission in place, literally anyone on the network could delete or modify those resources.
What features does Microsoft Exchange server share with other email systems? a) It transfers email messages to intended recipients in a reliable way. b) It stores the email messages in a server-based store. c) It supports various email clients. d) It provides users with information through the GAL.
What does Microsoft Exchange server integrate tightly with to provide its many features? The TCP/IP infrastructure provided by Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and AD service.
What protocols does Exchange server use to support web based mail client connectivity? HTTP, SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, NNTP.
What is the core data storage repository for Microsoft Exchange server? The Exchange Information Store Service.
What information does a mailbox store about a particular mail recipient? a) Mail Messages. b) Calendar Data. c) Tasks. d) Personal Information.
What are the two Microsoft Exchange server roles? Mailbox Server and Bridgehead Server.
Microsoft Exchange server 2003 requires what components and services to be installed and enabled on the server? .NET framework, ASP.NET, IIS, WWW Publishing Service, SMTP, and NNTP.
What must the account you use to install the first Exchange 2003 server in the forest be? The account you use to run DomainPrep must be a member of the Domain Administrators group in the local domain and a local computer administrator.
What are data structures designed to do? To organize data to suit a specific programming purpose so you can access them later and use them in appropriate ways to produce a desired output.
What is the purpose of a schema? The schema describes the objects that are represented in the database, and the relationships among them.
Why do we define a group of ordered data items or elements as a linked list? Because we use pointers to connect each element together, thus specifying their order.
How does a sequential list differ from a linked list? In contrast to the physical layout of data items in a linked list, where pointers connect each element together and specifying their order, a sequential list, or ordered list, in the order that the items are read.
How are columns and rows identified in a table? The columns are identified by name, and the rows are identified by the values appearing in a particular column subset, which has been identified as a candidate key.
How do base tables and derived tables differ? Base tables are self contained, meaning that all of the data in them is in that table, not from any other table. A derived table contains information that was retrieved from another table.
When referring to databases, what is a view? A virtual or logical table composed of the result set of a query.
How does a network, or plex, data structure differ from a hierarchical, or tree, data structure? With a network structure, though, both the relationship from child-to-parent and the relationship from parent-to-child can be a one to many.
Describe a relational database. A collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.
What three values form the basis of the three valued logic used by SQL? The Null value, along with True and False, is the basis of the Three Valued Logic (3VL) used by SQL.
Describe the three basic types of SQL statements. (1) Data statements–Queries and or modifies tables and columns. (2) Transaction statements–Control transactions, either making changes permanent, or removing them. (3) Schema statements–Maintain schema, creating or removing tables,views, & privileges.
In SQL, how is logging used to ensure data integrity? If an action is logged, but it is not completed, the actions can be read from the log and completed. If a log entry is incomplete, then incomplete transactions can be removed. If an action was not logged, then no changes were made to the database.
Describe the two types of concurrency used by Microsoft SQL server. a) Pessimistic concurrency which uses locks to control access to data. b) Optimistic concurrency. Each time a change is made to data in a row, a new version of that row is created and the old one is removed from the database and stored in a back up file.
Define the following features of UNIX: a) Multi-user - b) Multitasking - c) Simplicity - d) Flexibility - e) Portability - -Allows many users to work on the same system at the same time. -Execute numerous programs at the same time. -One command line and basic commands to accomplish a task. -Choose from many different commands. -Can run on many different types of hardware.
What is the kernel and what are its major functions? The basic memory-resident portion of the operating system. Its major functions include memory management, system access, maintaining the file system, error handling, input and output, and resource allocation.
What is a shell and what are its three main uses in UNIX? A user interface to UNIX™. It is simply a program that allows the system to understand your commands. The three main uses for a shell in UNIX™ are interactive use, customization, and programming.
How do you respond to the UNIX login prompt? By typing in your user id.
What two ways can a user be issued a password? By the system administrator or by the option of selecting your own password when you request an account on the system.
What prompt do you get after successfully logging into the UNIX system? Dollar sign ($).
What do you type at the command line prompt to change to the three different shells? csh - C shell ; ksh - Korn shell ; and sh - Bourne shell.
Define partitions. Logical sections into which disks are divided. Each partition is used for a particular purpose.
What flexibility does a disk-partitioning scheme give? The flexibility of using parts of a single disk for different purposes.
Define files. Files are the basic unit for storing and manipulating a collection of logically related information known as data.
Define directories. A directory is a file that holds other logically related files and contains information about the location and attributes of these other files.
Explain the following traditional directories provided with the UNIX operating system: a) /root - b) /bin - c) /dev - d) /usr - -Master directory and the highest-level directory of the UNIX file system. -Contains executable files for the most commonly used UNIX commands. -Contains device drivers. -Contains common files used by all users.
Define a hierarchical file system. A structure in which directories are organized in a top-to-bottom view.
Define the following terms: a) Pathname. b) A full pathname. c) A relative pathname. -A string of characters that describe what directory the file is in, as was well as the name of the file -The trace of the path from the root directory to the name of the file. -A path to a file relative to your present directory.
List the uses of the following commands: a) pwd - b) cd - c) ls - d) cp - e) mv - f) more - g) pg - h) pr - i) rm – pwd-Displays the current working directory. cd-Changes directories. ls-Lists the contents. cp-Copies files or directories. mv-Relocates files or directories. more-One screen full at a time. pg-One page at a time. pr-Formats a file. rm-Deletes file
What is the purpose of the UNIX “pipe”? A pipe is a means of taking the output of one command and redirecting it as the input of another command.
What is the find command used for and define four conditions that may be used within its format? 1) name - Used to look for a specific name. 2) print - Displays the result of the find command to standard output. 3) user - Used to search for files belonging to a particular user. 4) group - Used to search for files belonging to a particular group.
What does the grep command stand for and what does it look at? Globally find the Regular Expression and Print. It looks at an individual file and finds a specified pattern (string).
Define the use of the following commands: a) who - b) finger - c) whodo - d) id – -Displays users logged on, port, date, and time. -Displays users logged on, user’s complete name, port, day, login time, and remote system name. -Displays the date, time , and OS. For users logged on, the device, UID, and time. -Displays the UID and GI
What are the four types of permissions in UNIX? Read (r), write (w), execute (x) and none (-).
Why should you set up a separate account for personal use and not use the “root” user account on a day to day basis? One mistake by the root user can affect every user and the entire system.
What would you use the lpstat command for? To check to see what printers are available, and to see what is in the print queues.
How would you set the default printer for a system? Use the PRINTER= command, and follow that up with the export command.
What are the three elements that each group in UNIX must have? A name, unique group identification (GID) number that internally identifies the group to the system, and a list of user names that belong to the group.
How many primary and secondary groups can a user belong to? One, specific primary group by the operating system; the user may have up to a maximum of 15 other secondary groups.
What are the four main elements of a users account? A userid, a password, a home directory, and a userid number.
Why should access to the root user account be restricted to only those individuals that are required to have complete control over the system? An individual with limited knowledge can easily destroy a complete system if given root privileges.
Who has access to the file that contains a user’s encrypted password? The superuser of the system.
What are the two uses of the useradd command? It can either create a new user account or be used to display and change the default values for specific fields in the /etc/passwd file.
What do ACLs allow a system administrator to do? To limit access to files and resources to specific users, specific groups, file owners, file groups from multiple groups.
Of the three ways to display, create, set, add, modify, and delete an ACL for a file, which one is the easiest? The File Manager.
Name the three uses of the vi Editor. To create files, modify regular files, and create shell scripts.
Define the two different modes possible for vi, and state when they are used. a) The command mode is used to enter vi commands. b) The text input mode is used to type new text directly into the buffer.
What is the most common UNIX™ window system in use? The X windows system.
In UNIX, what does a windows manager do? It controls the appearance of windows, the way menus work, and other features.
What does mwm stand for? Motif Windows Manager.
With a standard UNIX™ login session running, what command do you type to start an X windows session? xinit and press return.
What is the terminology for highlighting an Xterm window prior to using it and what does it mean? You are setting the “input focus” to the desired window and it means the window or session is ready for input.
Can you start new xterm windows from within existing xterm window sessions? Yes. Simply type “xterm&”.
What has commands for controlling windows? The root menu.
What are two reasons to Iconify a window? 1) It puts unneeded windows out of the way without quitting the program inside them. 2) It also keeps you from accidentally typing into a window.
What are two ways of getting an xterm pull down menu? 1) Click on the menu button at the top left corner of a frame. 2) Click on an icon.
On the Xterm windows pull down menu, what does the command minimize do? The command minimize iconifies a window.
What follows each command on the pull down menu? A keyboard shortcut for the same command.
What does it mean if a pull down menu selection is in lighter print? It means that you cannot select that menu item in the current situation.
How can you get the usage message for many commands? By using the option “-?.”
What UNIX™ command is a powerful tool that gives you complete online access to the UNIX™ manuals? man (arg).
What is meant when an argument for a command is enclosed in square brackets ([ ]) in the synopsis of a man page? The argument is optional.
What is meant if syntax of a command argument on a man page is separated by a vertical bar “|”? Either one or the other (but not both) of the items is allowed.
What are a three of the most common sections you may see on a man page? A few of the most common are Description, Files, and See Also.
What section of a UNIX™ man page gives information about the library calls that interface with the UNIX operating system, such as open for opening a file, and exec for executing a program file? UNIX™ System Calls section.
Created by: 3D0X2