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Mr. Hall Muscle Anatomy

Flexion Bending a joint so that the angle decreases or the parts come closer together.
Extension Straightening a joint so that the angle increases or the parts move farther apart.
Hyperextension Excessive extension of a joint beyond the anatomical position.
Dorsiflexion Flexing the foot at the ankle (pulling toes toward the tibia)
Plantar Flexion Extending the foot at the anke (pointing the toes)
Abduction Moving a part away from the midline (raising arms away from the sides)
Adduction Moving a part toward the midline (returning arms to the sides from raised position)
Supination Turning the hand so the palm is upward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is raised.
Pronation Turning the hand so the palm is downward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is lowered.
Eversion Turning the foot so the sole is outward
Inversion Turning the foot so the sole is inward
Protraction Moving a part forward (thrust the chin forward)
Retraction Moving a part backward (pull the chin forward)
Elevation Raising a part (shrugging the shoulders)
Depression Lowering a part (dropping the shoulders)
Origin Immovable end of a muscle
Insertion Moveable end of a muscle
Prime Mover The primary muscle or muscles that cause a desired joint to move
Synergists Muscles that contract to assist the prime mover
Antagonists Muscles that resist a prime mover and causes movement in the opposite direction
Epicranius Raises eyebrow as if surprised, consists of two muscles frontalis and occipitalis
Frontalis Lies over the frontal bone
Occipitalis Lies over the occipital bone
Epicranial Aponeurosis Tendinous membrane uniting the frontalis and occipitalis that cocvers the cranium like a cap.
Orbicularis Oculi Surrounds the eye and closes the eye as in blinking
Orbicularis Oris Encircles the mouth and closes lips (also puckers lips as in kissing)
Buccinator Located in the wall of the cheek and compress the ckeck inward. Aids in mastication and smetimes called the "trumpeter muscle".
Zygomaticus Origin is on the zygomatic bone and inserts the lateral margin obicularis oris. Raises the corners of the mouth as in smiling.
Platysma Sheet like muscle that is located on the anterior portion of the neck. Pulls the mouth downward as in frowning and also helps lower the mandible.
Masseter Origin is lower boreder of zygomatic arch. Elevates mandible.
Temporalis Fan-shaped muscles that originates on the side of the skull. Fibers pass beneath the zygomatic arch and insert on the coronoid process. Elevates the mandible. Assoc. with TMJ
Medial Pterygoid Elevates the mandible
Lateral Pterygoid Opens mouth (depresses mandible), pulls the mandible forward, and moves the mandible from side to side.
Sternocleidomastoid Long muscle that extends upward from the thoraz to the base of the skull behind the ear. Pulls head to the side, flexes neck, and elevates sternum.
Splenius Capitis Rotates head, bends head to one side, and extends neck.
Semispinalis Capitis Extends head, bends ehad to one side, and rotates head.
Trapezius Extends from base of skull and cervical vertebrae to the shoulder. Rotates and raises scapula, pulls scapula medially, and pulls scapula/shoulder downward.
Levator Ani Supports pelvic viscera, and provides sphinterlike action in anal canal and vagina
Bulbospongiosus Emptying of urethra in males during ejaculation; constrict vagina in females
Spincter Urethrae Opens and closes urethra
Psoas Major Flexes thigh
Gluteus Maximus Extends thigh at hip
Gluteus Medius Abducts and rotates thigh medially
Adductor Longus Adducts, flexes, and rotates thigh laterally
Adductor Magnus Adducts, extends, and rotates thigh laterally.
Hamstring Group Flexors
Biceps Femoris Flexes and rotates leg laterally and extends thigh.
Semitendinous Flexes and rotates leg medially and extends thigh
Semimembranosus Flexes and rotates leg medially and extends thigh
Sartonius Flexes leg and thigh; abducts and rotates thigh laterally
Quadriceps Femoris All connect the illium and femur to a common patellar tendon which passed over the front of the knee and attaches to the tibia. Powerful leg extensions. Rectus Femoris. Vastus Lateralis. Vastus Medialis. Vastus Intermedius.
Tibialis Anterior Dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot.
Extensor Digitorum Longus Dorsiflexion and eversion of foot and extension of toes.
Gastrocnemius Plantar flexion of foot and flexion of leg at the knee, the "calf"
Flexor Digitorum Longus Plantar and inversion of foot; flexion of four lateral toes.
External Oblique Tenses abdominal wall and compresses abdominal contents
Rectus Femoris Leg extensor-Quadriceps Femoris Group
Vastus Lateralis Leg extensor-Quadriceps Femoris Group
Vastus Medialis Leg extensor-Quadriceps Femoris Group
Vastus Intermedius Leg extensor-Quadriceps Femoris Group
Deltoid Abducts, extends, and flexes arm
Pectoralis Major Flexes, adducts, and rotates arm medially
Latissimus Dorsi Extends, adducts, and rotates the arm medially, or pulls the shoulder downward and back.
Biceps Brachii Flexes elbow and rotates hand laterally
Triceps Brachii Extends elbow
Levator Scapulae Elevates Scapula
Created by: whysayname



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