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A&P - Ch10

Muscles

QuestionAnswer
consists of 3 muscle columns; action is keeping spine extension; prime mover of extension; sacrospinalis erector spinae
triceps brachii prime mover of forearm extension
biceps brachii & brachialis __ forearm flexors chief
O tubercle below glenoid cavity I olecranon process long head of triceps brachii
O posterior shaft of humerus I olecranon process lateral & medial heads of triceps brachii
prime mover of extension at elbow joint (forearm extension) triceps brachii
O coracoid process; I radial tuberosity short head biceps brachii
O tubercle above glenoid cavity; tendon runs w/n joint capsule & in intertubercular sulcus; I radial tuberosity long head biceps brachii
action: elbow flexion, supinates forearm biceps brachii
those that cause wrist movement & move digits forearm muscle group
forearm muscle group tendons are held via flexor & extensor retinacula
most anterior forearm muscles are __, each having superficial & deep layers flexors
most posterior forearm muscles are __, each having superficial & deep layers extensors
forearm pronators are __ muscles but pronate the forearm anterior
forearm supinators are __muscle but w/biceps brachii supinates the forearm posterior
wrist flexor; O- ulna; I- carpal bones flexor carpi ulnaris
extends wrist; O- ulna; 1st-5th metacarpal extensor carpi ulnaris
most __ compartment muscles of hip & thigh __ femur at hip & __ leg at knee anterior; flex; extend
__ compartment muscles of hip & thigh __ thigh & __ leg posterior; extend' flex
medial compartment muscles of leg all __ thigh adduct
three groups of leg muscles, anterior, posterior, & medial compartment muscles, are enclosed by __ __ fascia lata
forms bulk of buttock mass; site of I/M injections; overlies sciatic nerve; O dorsal ilium; I gluteal tuberosity; action: strong extensor of thigh gluteus maximus
O- dorsal ilium; I- greater trochanter of femur; Action: abduction & medial rotation of thigh gluteus medius
O- iliac fossa/iliac crest; I- lesser trochanter of femur by common tendon w/psoas major; action: prime mover of thigh flexion at hip joint iliacus
O- transverse processes, bodies of T12 & lumbar vertebrae; I- lesser trochanter of femur by common tendon w/iliacus action: prime mover of thigh flexion at hip joint psoas major
longest muscle in body, crosses both hip & knee joints; O-anterior superior iliac spine; I- medial aspect of proximal tibia; action: flexes hip, laterally rotates thigh, helps assume cross legged position; tailors muscle sartorius
O- ischium & pubis; I- linea aspera of femur; action: adduction at hip joint adductor magnus
O-pubis; I- tibia; adducts & flexes thigh gracilis
movements of knee joint; rectus femoris & 3 Vasti; sole extensor of the knee; arises from 4 heads quadriceps femoris
O- anterior inferior iliac spine; I-common quadriceps tendon inserts into patella, then via patellar ligament into tibial tuberosity rectus femoris
O- femur; I-common quadriceps tendon inserts into patella, then via patellar ligament into tibial tuberosity vastus lateralis, medialis, & intermedius
rectus femoris also has movement of flexion of thigh
muscles on posterior thigh, cross hip & knee joint; NS sciatic nerve hamstrings
O- common origin from ischial tuberosity; I- Tibia (various sites); action: prime movers of knee flexion & thigh extension biceps femoris, semitendinosus, & semimembranosus
divides leg into 3 compartments: anterior, lateral, & posterior fascia
leg muscles that produce dorsiflexion & plantar flexion ankle
leg muscles that produce inversion & eversion of foot intertarsal joints
leg muscles that produce flexion & extension toes
muscles of anterior compartment of leg are __ extensors & __ dorsiflexors toe; ankle
O-lateral tibial condyle, upper 2/3 tibial shaft; I-1st metatarsal & medial cuneiform; prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot tibialis anterior
muscles that plantar flex & evert foot; include fibularis longus & fibularis brevis muscles of lateral compartment of lower leg
muscles that primarily plantar flex foot & flex toes; include gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexors of digits & big toe muscles of posterior compartment of lower leg
shape posterior calf, & insert via common Achilles tendon on calcaneous; action: prime movers of ankle plantar flexion gastrocnemius & soleus
has 2 bellies; O- medial & lateral condyles of femur; I- via Achilles tendon into calcaneous; action: plantar flexion gastrocnemius
O-lower ribs; I- via aponeurosis to linea alba; help rectus abdominis in its actions; rotate spine external oblique
O- pubic crest & symphysis; I- costal cartilages 5-7; flex vertebral column, compress abdomen (increases intra-abdominal pressure) rectus abdominis
composed of 4 paired muscles, their fasciae, & their aponeuroses; external oblique; internal oblique; rectus abdominis; transversus abdominis abdominal wall
abdominal wall muscles are involved w/lateral flexion & rotation of __ trunk
abdominal wall muscles help promote urination, defecation, childbirth, vomiting, coughing
quiet expiration is __ passive
most important muscle in inspiration (prime mover) diaphragm
deeper layer- depress the rib cage & aid in forced expiration internal intercostals
O- inferior border of rib above; I- superior border of rib below; more superficial, lifts rib cage to allow inspiration (help diaphragm) external intercostals
all originate in the scapula & insert on lesser tubercle of humerus (subscapularis) & greater tubercle (the rest 3); function to stabilize shoulder joint & prevent its dislocation rotator cuff muscles
axillary nerve that supplies deltoid may be injured in __ of shoulder joint dislocations
axillary nerve that supplies deltoid may be injured in fracture of __ __ of humerus surgical neck
axillary nerve that supplies deltoid causes __ of deltoid muscle & arm __ is impaired paralysis; abduction
deltoid is frequent site for I/M injections
O- acromion, spine of scapula & lateral 3rd of clavicle; I- deltoid tuberosity of humerus; action: prime mover of arm abduction deltoid
nerve supply of deltoid is __ __ axillary nerve
only __ __ of deltoid helps pect. major w/flexion of arm anterior fibers
deltoid active during arm swinging, during walking
only __ __ of deltoid helps lat. dorsi w/arm extension posterior fibers
O- via fascia lower 3-4 ribs, spines of lower thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest; I- floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus; action: prime mover of arm extension latissimus dorsi
O- sternal end of clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages1-6; I- greater tubercle of humerus; action: prime mover of arm flexion pectoralis major
O- occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, spines of C7 & all thoracic vertebrae; I- acromion, spine of scapula & lateral 3rd of clavicle; action: scapular elevation, depression, & retraction trapezius
superior fibers of trapezius provide action of __ __ scapular elevation
middle fibers of trapezius provide action of __ __ scapular retraction
inferior fibers of trapezius provide action of __ __ scapular depression
O- Ribs 1-8; I- vertebral border of scapula; action: holds scapula against chest wall & also helps to stabilize scapula; ‘Boxers muscle’ serratus anterior
damage to long __ __ causes paralysis of serratus anterior muscle, causing winging of scapula thoracic nerve
scapula slips away from rib cage, giving wing-like appearance on upper back winging of scapula
muscles acting on pectoral region cause anterior movements of scapula, including pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
muscles acting on pectoral region cause posterior movements of scapula, including trapezius muscles, levator scapulae, rhomboids
muscles acting on the pectoral region that cause movements of arm at shoulder joint pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
O-Ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T6; I-Mastoid process adjacent occipital bone & transverse processes of cervical vertebrae two splenius muscles of neck
action: extend & hyperextend head two splenius muscles
2 headed muscle deep to platysma; O- manubrium of sternum, medial part of clavicle; I- mastoid process of temporal bone sternocleidomastoid
sternocleidomastoid spasm causes torticollis
action: acting together sternocleidomastoid provides neck flexion
action: acting alone sternocleidomastoid rotates head so face is turned towards opposite side
action: sternocleidomastoid provides __ flexion of head lateral
O- zygomatic arch & maxilla; I- angle & ramus of mandible masseter
masseter action biting, chewing, & close jaw
4-pairs of muscles involved in mastication buccinators, medial & lateral pterygoids, temporalis, masseter
sheet like neck muscle, plays role in facial expression platysma
platysma actions __ __ lower lip pulls down
platysma actions __ __ of neck tenses skin
Surrounds rim of orbit; O- frontal & maxillary bones; I- tissue of eyelids orbicularis oculi
orbicularis oculi action squinting, blinking, draws eyebrows inferiorly
action: protrudes lips, purses lips, closes lips; kissing & whistling muscle orbicularis oris
action: Raise lateral corners of muscles upward; smiling muscle zygomaticus minor & major
consists of frontal & occipital belly epicranius
epicranius belly muscles have __ actions of pulling __ forward and backward alternate; scalp
location, shape, relative size, direction of fibers, location of attachments, & action of muscles determines name of skeletal muscles
provide major force for producing specific movement prime movers
oppose/reverse particular movement antagonists
add force to a movement; reduce undesirable/unnecessary movement synergists
synergists that immobilize bone/muscle’s origin fixators
muscle w/broad O & fascicles tend toward single point of I; triangular/fan-shaped convergent
long axis of fascicles correspond to long axis of muscle; strap-like/spindle-shaped muscles parallel
muscle that has fleshy belly, tapering at either extremity; separate class of spindle-shaped muscles fusiform
short fascicles, attaching obliquely to central tendon, which runs length of muscle, toward which fascicles converge on either side pennate
short fascicles, attaching obliquely to central tendon, which runs length of muscle, toward which fascicles insert on both sides; muscle-grain resembles feather bipennate
short fascicles, attaching obliquely to central tendon, which runs length of muscle, toward which fascicles only insert on one side tendon unipennate
muscle w/several central tendons toward which muscle fibers converge; like many feathers situated side-by-side multipennate
pectoralis muscle originates on anterior surfaces of ribs 3-5
anterior muscles of pectoral girdle include pectoralis minor & serratus anterior
muscles of shoulder can be divided into 3 separate groups based on distribution & functional relationships
rotator cuff muscles act to stabilize humerus
muscles of shoulder joint are divided into rotator cuff, glenohumeral joint, & pectoral girdle
components of pectoral girdle include clavicle & humerus
primary function of pectoral girdle is to provide only connection btwn arm & axial skeleton
rhomboid minor muscle originates on spinous process of C7-T1
levator scapula originates on transverse processes of C1-4
levator scapula inserts on scapula medial border, just superior to spine of scapula
rhomboid minor muscle inserts on scapula medial border, at level of scapula spine
rhomboid major muscle originates on spinous process of T2-5
rhomboid major muscle inserts on scapula medial border, inferior to scapula spine
trapezius originates on external occipital protuberance & superior nuchal line
trapezius inserts on spinous processes of C7-T12, lateral 1/2 of clavicle, scapula spine & scapula acromion
rhomboideus minor muscle originates on which process of vertebrae? spinous
levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, rhomboideus major, & trapezius muscles that comprise posterior group of pectoral girdle
external occipital protuberance is 1 of origin sites for trapezius
scapula is loosely attached to __ __, making it capable of considerable movement thoracic cage
1 movement of scapula is __ __, or raising of glenoid cavity lateral rotation
1 movement of scapula is __ __, or lowering of glenoid cavity medial rotation
scapula is capable of __ & __ movements, shrugging of shoulders elevation; depression
scapula is capable of __ & __ movements, making back concave or convex protraction; retraction
lateral rotation of scapula results from contraction of serratus anterior & trapezius
medial rotation of scapula results from contraction of levator scapulae & rhomboid major/minor
elevation of scapula results from contraction of levator scapulae, rhomboid major/minor, & trapezius
depression of scapula results from trapezius & serratus anterior
scapular protraction is caused by contraction of serratus anterior & pectoralis minor
scapular retraction is caused by contraction of both rhomboids & trapezius
elevation is action that moves scapula towards head
serratus anterior muscle is associated w/scapular movements of __ & __ protraction; depression
rotator cuff__ & __ glenohumeral joint stabilizes; reinforces
rotator cuff muscles provide __ movement rotational
subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, & teres minor are muscles that make up rotator cuff
tendons of subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, & teres minor combine at humeral head
subscapularis originates anterior side of scapula, in subscapular fossa
subscapularis inserts on lesser tubercle of humerus
subscapularis prevents humeral head from sliding upward out of humeral joint as arm is raised
supraspinatus originate on posterior aspect of scapula, above scapular spine, within supraspinous fossa
supraspinatus inserts on most superior aspect of greater tubercle of humerus
supraspinatus angle is in position to abduct humerus
supraspinatus prevents __ __ of humerus when arm is relaxed or when carrying weight downward dislocation
infraspinatus originates on posterior of scapula, below scapular spine, within infraspinous fossa
infraspinatus inserts on greater tubercle of humerus
infraspinatus rotates humerus laterally
infraspinatus supports subscapularis muscle by preventing humoral head from sliding upward when arm is raised
teres minor originates on axillary border of scapula
teres minor inserts on greater tubercle just below insertion of infraspinatus
teres minor provides for __ rotation of humerus external
teres minor provides for __ of joint stabilization
most important function of rotator cuff muscles is to keep humeral head centered within glenoidal cavity
keeping humeral head centered within glenoid cavity requires that muscle be in same plane as humerus
rotator cuff muscles __ __ __ from humerus on acromion process of scapula decrease upward pressure
there are __ __ that cross shoulder joint & act on humerus nine muscles
deltoid, pectoralis major, & latissimus dorsi are considered prime movers of shoulder joint
coracobrachialis originates on coracoid process of scapula
coracobrachialis inserts on medial surface of humerus
__ head of biceps brachii originates on coracoid process of scapula short
__ head of biceps brachii originates on supraglenoid tubercle of scapular glenoid cavity long
2 heads of biceps brachii come together, distally, and insert on radial tuberosity just distal to elbow joint
deltoid originates on anterior border of clavicle, acromion, & posterior border of spine of scapula
deltoid inserts at deltoid tuberosity of humerus
anterior scapular muscles include deltoid, coracobrachialis, & biceps brachii
three sets of __ __ compose deltoid muscle distinct fibers
teres major originates on inferior angle of scapula
teres major inserts on interior edge of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
teres major is __ __ muscle that crosses glenohumeral joint posterior scapular
pectoralis major muscle originates on sternal angle of clavicle, sternum, & costal cartilages of ribs 1-6
pectoralis major muscles converge to insert on lateral edge of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
pectoralis major is __ __ muscle that crosses glenohumeral joint anterior axial
latissimus dorsi originates on T7-L5, lower 3-4 ribs, coccyx & iliac crest
latissimus dorsi originates on iliac crest & coccyx via thoracolumbar fascia
latissimus dorsi converges to insertion point within intertubercular sulcus of humerus
latissimus dorsi is the larger of __ __, both anterior & posterior, that cross glenohumeral joint axial muscles
flexion of glenohumeral joint would be __ in anterior angle, in relation to anatomical position reduction
abduction is movement of shoulder away & laterally from body
deltoid & pectoralis major are __ __ of glenohumeral joint flexion prime movers
extension of glenohumeral joint results from contraction of teres major which is the synergist
middle portion of deltoid muscle is prime mover of shoulder abduction
without lateral rotation of humerus by teres minor & infraspinatus maximum angle of abduction would be 90º
movement at elbow joint is summarized as flexion & extension
movement of forearm is summarized as pronation & supination
anterior arm flexors consist of brachialis, brachioradialis, & biceps brachii
__ __ of the biceps brachii insert on radial tuberosity two heads
masseter originates on zygomatic arch & maxilla
masseter inserts on angle & ramus of mandible
action of masseter works to close jaw
sternocleidomastoid originates on manubrium of sternum & medial part of clavicle
sternocleidomastoid inserts on mastoid process of temporal bone
muscles of sternocleidomastoid act together in neck flexion
muscles of sternocleidomastoid acting alone rotates heads so face is turned to opposite side
muscles of sternocleidomastoid also provide __ neck flexion lateral
splenius capitis originates on inferior half of ligamentum nuchae & spinous processes of C7-T3
splenius capitis inserts on mastoid process of temporal bone & superior nuchal line of occipital bone
splenius capitis, acting bilaterally, extends head & neck
splenius capitis, acting unilaterally, extends & rotates head to same side
erector spinae consists of three muscle columns
is prime mover of back extension erector spinae
erector spinae is also called sacrospinalis
triceps brachii has __ heads three
long head of triceps brachii originates on infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
heads of triceps brachii inserts on olecranon process of ulna
lateral head of triceps brachii originates on lateral/superior 1/2 of humerus, superior & lateral to radial groove
medial head of triceps brachii originates on inferior 2/3 of medial & posterior humerus, inferior to radial groove
triceps brachii are __ __ of forearm __ at elbow prime mover; extension
three heads of triceps brachii arise from humerus & scapula
long head of biceps brachii originates on supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
short head of biceps brachii originates on tip of coracoid process of scapula
both heads of biceps brachii insert, by a common tendon, on radial tuberosity & bicipital aponeurosis
blends with medial fascia of forearm __ of both heads of biceps brachii insertion
biceps brachii is responsible for elbow __ & __ of forearm flexion; supination
brachialis originates on distal 1/2 of inferior humerus
brachialis inserts on tuberosity & coronoid process of ulna
brachialis flexes forearm at elbow
pronator teres has __ & __ heads humeral; ulnar
humeral head of pronator teres originates on superior to medial epicondyle of humerus
ulnar head of pronator teres originates on medial side of coronoid process of ulna
heads of pronator teres insert on midlateral surface of radius
pronator teres pronates forearm & assist with elbow flexion
flexor digitorum superficialis heads consists of humeral, ulnar, & radial
flexor digitorum superficialis inserts to middle phalanges of digits 2-5
flexor digitorum superficialis flexes proximal interphalangeal joints 2-5, metacarpalphalangeal joints, & flexion of wrist
flexor carpi radialis inserts on metacarpal 2 & 3
flexor carpi radialis __ & __ wrist flexes; abducts
flexor carpi ulnaris inserts on pisiform, hamate, & metacarpal 5
flexor carpi ulnaris __ & __ wrist flexes; adducts
brachioradialis originates on supracondylar ridge of humerus
brachioradialis inserts on base of styloid process of radius
brachioradialis is strong forearm flexor when forearm semi-pronated
supinator muscle inserts on superior-lateral 1/3 of radius
supinator muscle supinates forearm such that palm turns anterior
extensor digitorum inserts on distal phalanges of digits 2-5
extensor digitorum passes under extensor retinacula
extensor carpi radialis longus passes under extensor retinacula, and inserts on base of metacarpal 2
extensor carpi radialis brevis inserts passes under extensor retinacula, on dorsal surface of base of metacarpal 3
extensor carpi ulnaris passes under extensor retinacula, & inserts on base of metacarpal 5
gluteus maximus originates on ilium, sacrum, coccyx, & sacrotuberous ligament
gluteus maximus inserts on gluteal tuberosity & iliotibial tract of fasciata
gluteus maximus is __ __ of thigh strongest extensor
gluteus medius originates on posterior iliac crest
gluteus medius inserts on greater trochanter of femur
gluteus medius __ & medially __ thigh abducts; rotates
iliopsoas consists of psoas major/minor & iliacus
psoas major originates on transverse processes, bodies of T12-L5
psoas major & iliacus insert on lesser trochanter of femur by common tendon
iliacus originates on iliac fossa & crest
iliopsoas is __ __ of thigh flexion at __ joint prime mover; hip
sartorius originates on anterior superior iliac spine
sartorius inserts on medial aspect of proximal tibia
sartorius __ hip & __ rotates thigh flexes; laterally
sartorius helps assume cross-legged position
sartorius is known as tailor's muscle
adductor magnus originates on ischium & pubis
adductor magnus inserts on linea aspera of femur
adductor magnus completes adduction at hip joint
gracilis originates on pubis
gracilis inserts on tibia
action of gracilis is adduction & flexion of thigh
rectus femoris originates on anterior inferior iliac spine
vastus- lateralis, medialis, & intermedius originate on femur
rectus femoris & vastus- lateralis, medialis, & intermedius insert via common __ tendon into __ quadriceps; patella
action of rectus femoris & vastus- lateralis, medialis, intermedius is knee extension
rectus femoris also acts to flex thigh
muscles on posterior thigh that cross hip & knee joint are hamstrings
lateral hamstring muscle biceps femoris
lateral hamstring muscle that is deep to semimembranous semitendinous
hamstring muscles that have common origin from ischial tuberosity biceps femoris, semimembranous, semitendinous
biceps femoris, semimembranous, semitendinous are hamstring muscles that insert on various sites on tibia
biceps femoris, semimembranous, semitendinous are hamstring muscles that are considered prime movers of knee flexion & thigh extensors
divides leg into anterior, posterior, & lateral leg fascia
muscles of anterior compartment of lower leg are toe extensors & ankle dorsiflexors
muscle of anterior compartment of lower leg, tibialis anterior, originates on lateral tibial condyle & upper 2/3 tibial shaft
tibialis anterior inserts on 1st metatarsal & medial cuneiform
tibialis anterior is prime mover of dorsiflexion
tibialis anterior __ the foot inverts
muscles of lateral compartment of lower leg plantar flex & evert foot
muscles of lateral compartment of lower leg include fibularis longus & brevis
muscles of posterior compartment of lower leg primarily plantar flex foot & flex toes
muscles of posterior compartment of lower leg include gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, and flexors of digits & big toe
gastrocnemius & soleus __ posterior calf, & __ via common Achilles tendon on calcaneous shape; insert
gastrocnemius & soleus are prime movers of ankle plantar flexion
gastrocnemius originates on medial & lateral condyles of femur
gastrocnemius inserts via Achilles tendon into calcaneous
action of gastrocnemius is __ flexion plantar
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius insert via common quadriceps tendon into patella then via patellar ligament into tibial tuberosity
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius are all part of quadriceps femoris
quadriceps femoris is __ __ of knee sole extensor
movements of knee joint include rectus femoris & 3 vasti muscles, which make up quadriceps femoris
rectus femoris acts on both knee & thigh
action: pectineus is hip adductor
vastus medialis __ __ at knee extends leg
biceps femoris is __ member of group of muscles known as __ lateral; hamstrings
semimembranosus __ member of group of muscles known as __ medial; hamstrings
semitendinosus is __ member of group of muscles known as __ superficial; hamstrings
tibialis anterior __ foot at ankle dorsiflexes
extensor digitorum longus inserts on __ 2-5 of __ digits; foot
extensor digitorum longus extends __ & __ joints of digits 2-5 metatarsophalangeael; interphalangeal
extensor digitorum longus __ __ in dorsiflexion of foot also assist
extensor hallucis inserts on base of distal phalanx of digit 1
extensor hallucis extends __ __ of the big toe & assist in __ of foot all joints; dorsiflexion
fibularis longus originates on head of fibula
tendon of fibularis longus passes posterior to __ __ of fibula lateral malleolus
tendon of fibularis longus inserts on __ __ of metatarsal 1 & medial surface of __ lateral surface; cuneiform
tendon of fibularis longus passes posterior of sole of foot
fibularis longus __ foot & assist in __ flexion of foot at ankle everts; plantar
rectus abdominis originates on pubic crest & symphysis
rectus abdominis inserts on costal cartilages 5-7
rectus abdominis __ vertebral column & __ abdomen flexes; compresses
rectus abdominis __ intraabdominal pressure increases
external oblique originates on lower ribs
external oblique inserts via aponeurosis to linea alba
adductor longus is a muscle name that describes action
temporalis is muscle name that describes location
transverse abdominis is muscle name that describes direction of fibers
deltoid is muscle name that describes shape
gluteus maximus is muscle name that describes size
muscles that perform most of action in producing movement agonists
muscles that help prime mover by contracting at same time to assist in movement so that movement is more effective synergists
muscles that relax when prime mover and synergists are contracting antagonists
muscle that raises eyebrows epicranius
sphincter muscles of eyelids; permits winking and blinking orbicularis oculi
raises lateral corners of the mouth; smiling muscle zygomaticus
depresses lower lip depressor labii inferioris
elevates and retracts mandible temporalis
elevates mandible masseter
elevates mandible and moves mandible side to side medial pterygoid
protracts mandible and moves mandible side to side lateral pterygoid
flexes and laterally rotates the head sternocleidomastoid
composite muscle located along the back from thoracic region to head semispinalis capitis, cervicis, and thoracis
broad two-part muscle that lies on the back of neck between base of skull and upper thorax splenius capitis and cervicis
muscles on the side of the neck located deep to platysma and sternocleidomastoid scalenus
stabilizes, elevates, rotates, and retracts the scapula; helps extend the head with the scapula fixed trapezius
steadies, retracts, and rotates the scapula rhomboids (major and minor)
elevates, adducts, retracts, and steadies the scapula; flexes neck to the same side when the scapula is fixed levator scapulae
extends, adducts, and rotates arm medially latissimus dorsi
abducts arm; anterior part flexes and rotates arm medially deltoid
chief medial rotator of arm subscapularis
abducts arm; stabilizes shoulder joint supraspinatus
flexes forearm at elbow joint; supinates forearm biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm brachialis
prime mover of forearm extension triceps brachii
pronates forearm and is a flexor of the elbow pronator teres
flexes wrist; aids abduction of hand flexor carpi radialis
flexes wrist and adducts hand flexor carpi ulnaris
flexes the four fingers and wrist flexor digitorum superficialis
abducts and extends thumb abductor pollicis longus
flexes fingers and assists in flexing wrist flexor digitorum profundus
pronates forearm and hand pronator quadratus
extends fingers and hand extensor digitorum
adducts thigh; flexes and medially rotates leg gracilis
extends and laterally rotates thigh; extends hip against resistance gluteus maximus
rotates thigh laterally quadratus femoris
flexes and adducts thigh pectineus
extends leg at knee and flexes thigh at hip rectus femoris
flexes leg on thigh; flexes thigh on pelvis sartorius
flexes and laterally rotates leg at knee biceps femoris
flexes leg and rotates it medially; adducts thigh gracilis
plantar flexes foot; flex leg at knee gastrocnemius
dorsiflexes foot and inverts foot tibialis anterior
plantar flexes foot; important in posture soleus
everts foot; plantar flexes foot fibularis (peroneus) longus and brevis
close body openings by contracting circular
has a broad origin; single tendon of insertion convergent
strap-like with an expanded belly; great ability to shorten but NOT very powerful parallel
fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle; do NOT shorten as much but are more powerful pennate
rigid bar that moves on a fixed point lever
fixed point upon which a lever moves fulcrum
applied force effort
resistance load
example of lever radius
example of fulcrum elbow joint
example of effort biceps brachii
example of load distal end of forearm, hand, and anything you are holding
effort is applied at one end of the lever; the load at the other; fulcrum somewhere in between 1st class lever
effort applied at one end of the lever; the fulcrum located at the other; load between them 2nd class lever
effort applied between the load and the fulcrum 3rd class lever
example of 1st class lever lifting your head off your chest
example of 2nd class lever standing on tip-toe
example of 3rd class lever flexing forearm w/biceps
most common lever systems in the body 3rd class
damage to __ __ would interfere with quiet breathing external intercostals
muscles with fibers that run straight or parallel to the long axis of the body are called rectus
muscular wall of the abdomen is composed of oblique and rectus muscles
major abductor muscle of the upper arm deltoid
extensor digitorum muscle is an example of pennate muscle
second-class levers have great strength but are slow and have little range of motion
platysma muscle divides the neck into two triangles
external intercostals lifts the rib cage during inspiration
common site for injections in infants who have poorly formed buttocks vastus lateralis
shin splints are caused by irritation of the tibialis anterior
Created by: lfrancois