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Ch.12/MED 126

The Heart

The thoracic cavity is located between the lungs in the space called the? Mediastinum
The base is superior or inferior? Superior
The base is located _______ to sternum? Posterior
___________ enter and exit at the base? Greater vessels
The apex is superior or inferior? Inferior
The apex is located just superior to the? Diaphragm
The apex is located just left of the? Midline
The strongest heartbeat is found here? Apex
What are serous and fibrous membranes surrounding the heart? Pericardial membranes
The fibrous pericardium is made up of ___________ tissue? Fibrous connective
What is very tough and the outermost of the 3 layers of the pericardial membrane called? Fibrous pericardium
The serous pericardium contains __ layers of serous membrane? 2
What lines the fibrous pericardium? Parietal pericardium
What is AKA epicardium and covers the heart? Visceral pericardium
Why is serous fluid secreted by both serous membranes? To decrease friction between them
What is the heart muscle called? Myocardium
What is the simple squamous epithelium the lines the 4 chambers, valves, and vessels (endothelium) Endocardium
The endocardium is very smooth to prevent? Clotting
What do the valves prevent? Backflow
The upper chambers of the heart are called? Atria (s. atrium)
What is the wall that separates the atria? Interatrial septum
The right atrium receives blood from the 2 large ____________? Caval veins
The superior vena cava receives blood from the _______ body? Upper
The inferior vena cava receives blood from the _______ body? Lower
The right atrium pumps blood to the _________ through the right _______ valve, AKA tricuspid valve? Right ventricle, atrial ventricular (AV)
The endocardium of the tricuspid valve is reinforced with ________ tissue? Connective
The tricuspid valve has __ cusps (flaps)? 3
The left atrium receives blood from the ______ from the 4 pulmonary veins? Lungs
The left atrium pumps to the ________ the the ___ valve (AKA bicuspid or mitral valve)? Left ventricle, AV
Atria produces a hormone called? Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
ANP also known as ANH (atrial natriuretic hormone) helps maintain? Blood pressure
ANP ______ reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys which ______ BP? Decreases, decreases
What hormone is the antagonist to ANP? Aldosterone
ANP is stimulated by? Stretching of the atrial walls
The lower chambers of the heart are called? Ventricles
The wall that separates ventricles is called? Interventricular septum
Cells produce _______(BNP) which functions like ANP? B-type natriuretic peptide
The right ventricle pumps blood to the ______ through the ______ (AKA semilunar valve) Lungs, pulmonary
What are strands of fibrous connective tissue that attach to the bottom of the AV valves? Chordae tendineas
What are projections of muscles off of the ventricular wall that attach to the other end of the chordae tendineae? Papillary muscles
Papillary muscles contract to prevent _________ of the AV valve? Prolapse or inversion
The right ventricle walls are thinner or thicker than the left ventricle walls? Thinner
The left ventricle walls are thicker or thinner myocardium than the right ventricle? Thicker
The left ventricle pumps blood to the ______ through the _______ valve? Aorta, aortic semilunar
What is the fibrous connective tissue that anchors the valves and the great vessels at the base called? Fibrous skeleton
The fibrous skeleton separates the atria from the? Ventricles
The fibrous skeleton insulates? The electrical system
What are the vessels that feed the heart muscle itself called? Coronary vessels
The coronary arteries branch off of the? Ascending aorta
The coronary arteries bring ________ blood? Oxygenated
The coronary arteries branch to become capillaries then converge to become? Veins
Blockage of the coronary arteries can cause? Ischemia (lack of blood)
What is a prolonged ischemia that causes tissue death called? Infarct (heart attack, myocardial infarction)
The coronary veins return deoxygenated blood to the? Right atrium
What is the sequence of events in one heartbeat called? Cardiac cycle
The cardiac cycle is simultaneous contraction of both _____ followed by simultaneous contraction of both _________? Atria, ventricles
What is contraction of a chamber called? Systole
What is relaxation of a chamber called? Diastole
The _____ systole (lub) is followed by _______ systole (dub)? Atrial, ventricular
Improper closing of the valves is called? Murmur
What is the electrical system of the heart that regulates the rate, rhythm, and sequence of the muscle contraction called? Cardiac conduction pathway
The pacemaker of the heart is called? Sinoatrial (SA) node
What are specialized muscle cells in the wall of the right atrium called? SA node
The SA node depolarizes faster than other cells because? The cells are more permeable to sodium
After the SA node depolarizes, the signal travels to the? Atrioventricular (AV) node
What is located in the lower interatrial septum? AV node
What carries the signal from the AV node to the bundle branches? Atrioventricular (AV) bundle AKA bundle of His
The AV bundle is located in the? Upper interventricular septum
What are right and left bundle branches that take the signal from the AV bundle to the purkinje fibers? Bundle branches
The purkinje fibers bring the signal to the? Ventricles
What measures the electrical activity of the heart? Electrocardiogram (ECG)
What is irregular heartbeats called? Arrhythmias
What is the conscious awareness of arrythmias called? Palpatation
What is the uncoordinated contraction called? Fibrilation
Fibrilation can be atrial or ventricular, but _________ are much more serious? Ventricular
What is the measurement of the HR at a vessel called? Pulse
What is the normal HR at rest for adults? 60-80 BPM
What is less than 60 BPM called? Bradycardia
What is more than 100 BPM called? Tachycardia
Children can be ___ BPM? 100
Infants can be ___ BPM? 120
Near term fetuses can be ___ BPM? 140
Athletes can be as low as __ BPM? 35
What is the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in one minute called? Cardiac output
The cardiac output varies based on? Activity
What is the volume of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat called? Stroke volume
The average stroke volume is __ to __ mL? 60-80
Cardiac output = ? Stroke volume x HR
What does Starling's law state? As cardiac muscle fibers are stretched the more forcefully they contract
What is the difference between resting output and maximum output in liters called? Cardiac reserve
What is the percent of blood in the ventricle that is pumped called? Ejection fraction
The average ejection fraction is __ to __%? 60-70
The CNS has the ability to influence the ____ of contraction? Rate
The _______ contains 2 cardiac centers? Medulla
The medulla contains 2 cardiac centers called the? Accelerator center and inhibitory center
The accelerator center is carried by the? SNS
The inhibitory center is carried by the? PSNS
The pressoreceptors/baroreceptors detect? Pressure in the arteries
The pressoreceptors/baroreceptors are located in the carotid and aortic? Sinuses
What detects oxygen content in the blood? Chemoreceptors
The chemoreceptors are located in the carotid and aortic? Bodies
Created by: laceylake