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Anatomy Unit 3

Axon Neuron has only one, Impulse generator and conductor; Transmits impulses away from the cell body Multiple branches at end of axon, Terminal branches end in knobs called axon terminals (also called end bulbs or boutons)
Dendrites Extensive branching from the cell body;Transmit electrical signals toward the cell body; Function as receptive sites for receiving signals from other neurons
Types of Neurons-Structural classification number of dendrites Unipolar Bipolar Multipolar
Types of Neurons-Functional classification Sensory Integrating Motor
Neurons structure Soma:cell body, contains typical cell structures CNS collection of neuron cell bodies=nucleus; PNS=ganglion
Functions of the NS Ovrall is control and communication, achieved through Monitoring internal/ external stimuli Processing and interpreting stimuli;Responding to stimuli to maintain homeostasis
Organization of the NS CNS, Structures:Brain; Spinal cord Functions:Integration of incoming stimuli
Organization of the NS (con't) PNS; Struct: Cranial nerves,Spinal nerves Funct:Transduce and direct incoming stimuli to CNS (afferent pathway); Innervate muscles and glands to produce effect (efferent pathway)
Peripheral Divisions Somatic:Afferent pathway from external stimuli/ Efferent pathway to skeletal muscles Visceral:Afferent pathway from internal stimuli /Efferent pathway to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Nervous Tissue consists of branching neurons (nerve cells) and support cells (glia). is capable of initiating and conducting electrical signals
Neuron-Characteristics Longevity:can live/ function for a lifetime; Mostly amitotic:fetal neurons lose their ability to undergo mitosis; neural stem cells are an exception; High metabolic rate:require abundant oxygen and glucose
Glia Neuroglia Glial cells have branching processes and a central cell body Outnumber neurons 10 to 1 Make up half the mass of the brain Can divide throughout life
CNS support cells Oligodendrocytes Form myelin in CNS
PNS support cells Schwann cells surround axons in the PNS Form myelin sheath around axons of the PNS
Myelin insulates the axon and ensures the integrity of the neuron’s electrical signal; an outgrowth of the glial cells that produce it;mostly fat with some proteins
Synaptic-Chemical Neurons connected by physical space Electrical activity in pre-synaptic neuron produces chemical exocytosis that acts on post-synptic neuron.
Spinal Cord Anatomy-Gray Matter gray color; surrounds hollow central cavities of the CNS; forms H-shaped region in SC; Dorsal half has cell bodies of interneurons;Ventral half has cell bodies of motor neurons; Primarily has of neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons
Spinal Cord Anatomy-White Matter Lies external to the gray matter of the CNS; Composed of myelinated axons; Consists of axons passing between specific regions of the CNS Tracts are bundles of axons traveling to similar destinations
Created by: s.dornbusch