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cd 261

chapter 5 study guide

3 registers commonly referred to are modal register, glottal fry/pulse register and falsetto
3 types of attack breathy, simultaneous and glottal
abdominal fixation process of impounding air in the thorax to stabilize the torso
average fundamental frequency reflects the frequency of vibration of sustained phonation such as conversational speech
Bernoulli Effect given a constant volume flow of air or fluid, at a point of constriction there will be a decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow and an increase in velocity of the flow
breathy vocal attack vocal attack in which expiration occurs before the onset of vocal fold adduction
breathy voice inefficient, air wastage, air escaping while talking
clearing throat pressure is built up from tightening the laryngeal musculature
coughing is a response by the tissues of the respiratory passageway to an irritant or foreign object, mediated by the visceral afferent (sensory) portion of the X vagus nerve innervating the bronchial mucosa
cough forceful evacuation of the respiratory passageway, including deep inhalation through widely abducted vocal folds, tensing and tight adduction of the vocal folds, and elevation of the larynx, followed by forceful expiration
Diadochokinesis aka AMR (alternating motor rate) refers to the alternation of articulators
frequency number of cycles of vibration per second
frequency perturbation aka vocal jitter measure of cycle by cycle variation in fundamental frequency of vibration
glottal attack the vocal attack in which expiration occurs after adduction of the vocal folds (a cough)
habitual pitch frequency of vibration of vf habitually used during speech
intensity magnitude of sound, expressed as the relationship between two pressures or powers
intonation the melody of speech, provided by variation of the fundamental frequency
linguistic elements include pitch, intonation, loudness, stress, duration and rhythm
maximum phonation time refers to the duration of phonation an individual is capage of sustaining/Sustained phonation provides an index of phonatory plus respiratory efficiency
muscle spindles bodies responsible for monitoring and maintaining tonic muscle length
modal register aka modal phonation refers to the pattern of phonation used in daily conversation
vertical mode the vf open from inferior to superior and close same way
anterior/posterior mode vf open and close in anterior to posterior mode
monopitch without variation in vocal pitch (the perception of frequency)
monoloud without variation in vocal loudness (the perception of vocal intensity)
natural frequency of vibration frequency at which a body vibrates given its mass, tension and elasticity
octave doubling of frequency
optimal pitch the perceptual characteristic representing the ideal or most efficient frequency of vibration of the vocal folds
phonation is the product of vibrating vocal folds within the larynx
pitch is the psychological (perceptual) correlate of frequency of vibration
pressed phonation an increase in the strident or harsh quality that tends to abuse the voice
prosody the system of stress used to vary the meaning of speech
simultaneous vocal attack vocal attack in which expiration and vocal fold adduction occur simultaneously
suprasegmental parameters of speech that include prosody, pitch, and loudness changes for meaning
sustained phonation phonation which continues for long durations due to tonic contraction of vocal fold adductors
stress the product of relative increase in fundamental frequency, vocal intensity, and duration
terminate phonation we abduct/open the vocal folds to terminate phonation/When we are not phonating the vf are abducted to prohibit air turbulence
vocal attack movement of vocal folds into the airstream to initiate phonation
vocal fundamental frequency primary frequency of vibration of the vocal folds
vocal intensity sound pressure level associated with a given speech production
vocal jitter cycle by cycle variation in fundamental frequency of vibration
vocal register register or mode refers to differences in vibration of the vocal folds
waveform a representation of displacement of a body over time and displays what was vibrating
whistle register a register above falsetto that is not apparently a mode of vibration
Created by: hayleypb