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The Skeletal System

Fracture A broken bone; a sudden breaking of a bone
Pathological Fracture Occurs when a bone, which is weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break
Hairline Fracture (stress fracture) A minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment. Usually is not visible on x-ray until 3 to 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms
Colles' Fracture Occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting with the wrist bones
Impacted Fracture Occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone
Open Reduction Realigning the bone under direct observation during surgery
Closed Reduction The manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision
Closed Fracture (simple fracture) A break in the bone, but no open wound in the skin
Open Fracture (compound fracture) A break in the bone as well as an open wound in the skin
Compression Fracture Caused by bone surfaces being forced against eachother
Temporal Bones Form the lower sides and part of the base of the skull
Lacrimal Bones Located at the inner corner of each eye
Acetabulum A socket in the pelvic bone where the thigh bone joins the pelvis
Acromion Highest part of the shoulder where the clavicle and scapula meet
Articulation A joint which binds two bones together
Ligaments Connective tissue which binds bone to bone
Skeletal Muscle Voluntary or striated muscles which attach to bone
Sinus An opening or hollow space in a bone
Intercostal Spaces Space between the ribs
Osteoblasts Immature bone cells
Osteocytes Mature bone cells
DEXA Scan A noninvasive procedure that measures bone density
Intervertebral Disc Disc of cartilage that separates each vertebra of the spinal column
Fontanelle/Fontanel Space between the bones of an infant's cranium (AKA soft spot)
Tubercle A small rounded process of a bone
Flat Bones They are broad and thin with flat surfaces, sometimes curved
True Ribs Ribs 1-7. They are attached to the vertebrae and the sternum
Hematopoiesis The process of blood cell formation in the red marrow of bones
Long Bones Longer than they are wide. They have distinctive-shaped ends
Short Bones As long as they are wide. They are boxlike.
Periosteum The thick fibrous membrane that covers the surface of the long bone, except joint surfaces
Osteoporosis Bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density; porous bones
Osteomalacia Bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood
Smoot Muscles Muscles found in visceral organs and blood vessels
Synovial Joints Freely moving joints
Tendons Connective tissue which binds muscle to bone
Occipital Bone Back of the head and base of the skull
Trochanter Large bony process located below the neck of the femur, for attachment of muscles
Foramen A whole within a bone through which vessels or nerves pass, as in the foramen magnum of the skull that allows the cranial nerves to pass through it
Ossification The conversion of the fibrous connective tissue and cartilage into bone or a bony substance
Osteomyelitis Infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood
Kyphosis An abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback
Scoliosis An abnormal lateral curvature of a portion of the spine
Spinal Stenosis A narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramini (openings) of the lumbar spinal canal. The narrowing causes pressure on the nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramini
False Ribs Ribs 8-10. They connect to the spine, but not the sternum
Floating Ribs Ribs 11-12. They are attached to the spine but float in the front
Condyle Knucklelike projection at the end of a bone; usually fits into a fossa of another bone to form a joint
Diaphysis The main shaftlike portion of a long bone. Hollow cylinder shape and consists of thick compact bone
Epiphysis Located at each end of a long bone. They have a bulb-like shape that provides space for muscle attachments
Epiphyseal Line Layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis of the bone
Sulcus A groove or depression in a bone; a fissure
Sutures Immovable joints, such as those of the cranium
Created by: sanzijessica