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Whole Body Terminology

Aplasia A developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue
Anaplasia A change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form
Dysplasia Any abnormal development of tissues or organs
Anterior Pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body
Cardiac Muscle Specialized type of muscle that forms the wall of the heart; a type of involuntary muscle
Caudal Pertaining to the tail
Cell The smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter
Cell Membrane The semipermeable barrier that is the outer covering of a cell
Cervical Vertebrae Consisting of the first seven segments of the spinal column, make up the bones of the neck
Coccyx Located at the very end of the vertebral column and is also called the tailbone. The adult coccyx is a single bone that is the result of the fusion of the four individual coccygeal bones in the child
Connective Tissue Tissue that supports and binds other tissue and parts. May be: liquid:blood; fatty:protective padding; fibrous:tendons/ligaments; cartilage:rings of trachea; solid:bone
Cranial Pertaining to the cranium or brain
Dorsal Pertaining to the back or posterior
Genes Segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics
Frontal Plane Any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal planes and dividing the body into front and back portions
Histologist Medical scientist who specializes in the study of tissues
Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells of a body part
Hypoplasia Incomplete or under-developed organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells
Inferior Below or downward toward the tail or feet
Lateral Toward the side of the body, away from the midline of the body
Medial Toward the midline of the body
Midline of the Body The imaginary "line" that is created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves
Muscle Tissue The tissue that is capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers
Nervous Tissue Tissue that transmits impulses throughout the body, thereby activating, coordinating, and controlling the many functions of the body
Nucleus The central controlling body within a licing cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane
Peritoneum A specific, serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
Posterior Pertaining to the back of the body
Prone Lying facedown (horizontal position) on the abdomen
Proximal Toward or nearest the trunk of the body; or nearest to the point of origin of a body part
Sacrum Located below the lumbar vertebrae, is the fourth segment of the spinal column. This single, triangular-shaped bone is a result of the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child
Skeletal Muscle Muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skeleton: AKA striated muscle:acts voluntarily
Smooth Muscle Found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes, acts voluntarily
Superficial Pertaining to the surface of the body, or near the surface
Superior Above or upward toward the head
Supination A movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward
Thoracic Cavity The thoracic cavity contains the lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea
Transverse Plane Any of the planes cutting across the body perpendicular to the sagittaland the frontal planes dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portion
Umbilicus The navel; AKA bellybutton
Visceral Pertaining to the internal organs
Abdominal Cavity The abdominal cavity is serparated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm (the muscle that aids in the process of breathing). The abdominal cavity contains the liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and kidneys
Anatomical Position The standard reference position for the body as a whole: the person is standing with arms at the sides and palms turned forward; the individual's head and feet are also pointing forward
Chromosomes The threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body
Cranial Cavity Contains the brain; pertaining to the head
Cytology The study of cells
Distal Away from or farthest from the trunk of the body; farthest from the point of origin of a body part
Epigastric Region The region of the abdomen located between the right and left hypochondriac regions in the upper section of the abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the ribs
Epithelial Tissue The tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body; It also lines the vessels, body cabities, glands, and body organs
Hypogastric Region The middle section of the lower abdomen, beneath the umbilical region
Inguinal Region The right and left regions of the lower section of the abdomen; AKA Iliac Region
Lumbar Region The right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen
McBurney's Point A point on the right side of the abdomen, about two thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip
Mediolateral Pertaining to the middle and side of the structure
Mitochondria Cell organs, or organelles, which provide the energy needed by the cell to carry on its essential functions
Navel The umbilicus; the bellybutton
Neoplasia The new and abnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant
Pelvic Cavity The lower front cavity of the body, located beneath the abdominal cavity; contains the urinary bladder, and reproductive organs
Plantar Pertaining to the sole or bottom of the foot
Plane Imaginary slices, or cuts, made through the body as if a dividing sheet were passed throuh the body at a particular direction, permitting a view from a different angle.
Supine Lying horizontally on the back, face up
Tissue A group of cells that perform specialized functions
Umbilical Region The region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen, between the right and left lumbar regions and directly beneath the epigastric region
Ventral Of or pertaining to a position toward the belly of the body; forward; anterior
Visceral Muscle Those of the internal organs; AKA Smooth Muscle
Created by: sanzijessica