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2008 VA & US History

2008 VA & US History SOL Resources

QuestionAnswer
Which groups settled New England Puritans and Pilgrims
Early European exploration and colonization resulted in redistribution of the world's population.
Most individuals settling in Virginia were seeking economic opportunities.
Which colony did the Virginia Company of London establish in 1607? Jamestown
The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first elected assembly in the New World.
The primary pull factor for European colonization in North America was religious freedom and economic opportunities.
German-speaking immigrants settled primarily in the Middle Atlantic Region.
The American Indian view of interaction with English settlers The American Indians worried about food sources for the future.
The New England region is present day Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island
The Middle Atlantic region is present day Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
The Southern region is present day Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia
The New England region products/commerce include lumber, shipbuilding, trade, molasses, fur trade, fishing, and subsistence farming
The Middle Atlantic region products/commerce include shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and trade
The Southern region products/commerce include cash-crops, indigo, rice, tobacco, and plantations
New England's reason for settlement was religious freedom, and to create a Puritan commonwealth
Middle Atlantic's reason for settlement was economic opportunity and religious freedom
The Southern region's reason for settlement was economic opportunity and business venture (Virginia Company of London)
What groups of people made up the New England region. Pilgrims and Puritans
What groups of people made up the Middle Atlantic region. English, Dutch, German settlers, Quakers, and Huguenots.
What groups of people made up the Southern region. Cavaliers, Poor English and Scots-Irish immigrants, Debtors and other prisoners, Noblemen, Indentured servants, and Enslaved persons.
The economy of the New England colonies was partially based on shipbuilding and fishing
The economy of the middle colonies was based primarily on small-scale farming, shipbuilding, and trade.
The colony of Rhode Island was established as a result of persecution by Puritans in Massachusetts.
The colonial region whose economy was based on shipbuilding, lumbering, and small-scale subsistence farming was the New England
What was the colonial religious movement that was a social foundation for the American Revolution? Great Awakening
Why was slavery most predominant in the Southern colonies? Large-scale agriculture required extensive labor
What events contributed to the start of the French and Indian War. Both the French and the English viewed the Ohio River Valley as valuable. Virginians built a fort in present day Pittsburgh. The French, considering this area their territory, drove them off
In _______, The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War It granted . . . 1763, Canada and all French holdings east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans to the British. Britain also acquired Florida from Spain.
In an attempt to prevent conflict between the colonists and the Indians, Britain issued the Proclamation of 1763. This act prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists were angered by it and ignored it
Exploration and colonization initiated worldwide commercial expansion as agricultural products were exchanged between the Americas and Europe.
In time, colonization led to ideas of representative ________ and religious ________ that over several centuries would inspire similar transformations in other parts of the world. government, tolerance
The colonies of the New World had distinctive social characteristics, determined in part by the origins of the colonists, their religions, their occupations, and their ancestors.
A religious movement in Europe and the Colonies during the mid-1700s; led to the rapid growth of Methodist and Baptist, and challenged the established religious and governmental orders, and laid one of the social foundations for the American Revolution. The Great Awakening
New England colonies used ______ in the operation of government. town meetings (an―Athenian direct democracy model)
Virginia and the other Southern colonies had a social structure based on family status and the ownership of land.
Large landowners in the eastern lowlands dominated ___________ and ________. They maintained an allegiance to ___________ and kept closer social ties to _________ colonial government (legislatures), society. Church of England, England than did those in the other colonies.
In the mountains and valleys further inland, society was characterized by small-scale subsistence farmers, hunters, and traders of Scots-Irish and English descent.
Rhode Island was founded by dissenters fleeing persecution by Puritans in Massachusetts.
The middle colonies were home to multiple religious groups that generally believed in religious tolerance, including Quakers in Pennsylvania, Huguenots and Jews in New York, and Presbyterians in New Jersey
The Middle Colonies had more flexible social structures and began to develop a middle class of skilled artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers. The middle colonies incorporated a number of democratic principles that reflected the basic rights of Englishmen.
The growth of a plantation-based agricultural economy in the hot, humid coastal lowlands of the Southern colonies required _______ labor on a large scale. cheap
Some of the Southern Colonies labor needs, especially in Virginia, were met by indentured servants, who were often poor persons from England, Scotland, or Ireland who agreed to work on plantations for a period of time in return for their passage from Europe or relief from debts.
Most plantation labor needs eventually came to be satisfied by the forcible importation of Africans.
Although some Africans worked as indentured servants, earned their freedom, and lived as free citizens during the Colonial Era, over time, larger and larger numbers of enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to the Southern colonies (the ―Middle Passage).
The development of a slavery-based agricultural economy in the Southern colonies eventually led to conflict between the North and South and the American Civil War.
Both the French and the English viewed the Ohio River Valley as ______. Virginians built a fort in present day ______. The French, considering this area their territory, drove them off. These events contributed to the start of the _______. valuable, Pittsburgh, French and Indian War.
In 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War. It granted Canada and all French holdings east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans to the British. Britain also acquired Florida from Spain.
In an attempt to prevent conflict between the colonists and the Indians, Britain issued the ___________. This act prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists were angered by it and ignored it. Proclamation of 1763
To help cover the costs of the French and Indian War, the British imposed taxes on the colonists. Ex: Stamp Act, 1765
A tax on legal documents and required all the colonists to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used: legal documents, ship’s papers, licenses, newspapers and other publications, and even playing cards were taxed. The Stamp Act, 1765
All colonies except ____ sent representatives to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774. This Congress issued as its final resolution called the ______. Georgia, The Declaration of Resolves. King George III ordered British troops to put down the rebellion.
On April 19, 1775, Minutemen and British troops met at _______. Shots were fired, and ___ colonists were killed. More fighting broke out as the British moved on to _____ . At least 273 British soldiers were killed or wounded on the march back to ___ . Lexington, Massachusetts. eight, Concord, Boston
_______ wanted complete independence from England. They were inspired by John Locke, Thomas Paine, and Patrick Henry (―Give me liberty, or give me death‖), and they served as troops for the American army led by George Washington. Patriots
remained loyal to Britain and agreed with taxation as a means of paying for Britain protecting settlers from Indian attacks, for covering the cost of administering the Empire, and for defending against a French comeback. Loyalist (Tories)
attempted to stay as uninvolved as possible. Neutrals
Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called _____ in January of 1776. This pamphlet challenged the King of England’s rule of the colonies. It also shifted the focus of colonial anger from the Parliament to the Crown. Common Sense
_______ , lasted from April 1775 until October 1781, with the British defeat at the Battle of Yorktown. This defeat was made possible, in part, by the presence of the _____ army and navy. ___________ served as the commanding general of the American army. The American Revolution, French, George Washington
The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, (and not to be confused with the Treaty of Paris of 1763) was negotiated by Benjamin Franklin. The terms of the treaty: Recognized US independence. Land from Atlantic to Mississippi River & Great Lakes to Florida granted to the US. US gained fishing rights in St. Lawrence Gulf & off the coast of Newfoundland. Americans would pay debts owed. British would evacuate US post.
The philosopher John Locke influenced the American belief in self-government through his writing that power belonged to the people, who consented to form a government
Which English immigrant challenged the rule of the American colonies by the King of England in a pamphlet called Common Sense? Thomas Paine
The French and Indian War was a cause of the American Revolution because it led Great Britain to enforce existing economic policies and create new taxes on the colonies
The American Revolution began with a battle between British and colonial troops at Lexington and Concord
The contribution of which country’s army and navy helped the colonists win the American Revolution? France
Which are the key principle of the Declaration of Independence? Equality, Liberty, Constraint
According to Locke, if a government failed to fulfill its social contract with its citizens, they could overthrow the government for a new one.
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." is a quote from Declaration of Independence
Why was George Washington important to the American Revolution? He was a strong commander of the Continental Army.
The Articles of Confederation was unsuccessful as a government system because it established a weak national government
The Three-Fifths Compromise was established to address the concern of Southern states
The author of the Bill of Rights and the "Virginia Plan" proposing a federal government with three branches was James Madison
The concepts used when drafting the Bill of Rights were derived from which documents? Virginia Declaration of Rights and Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom*
Which group opposed the Bill of Rights because it was believed the Constitution adequately protected basic rights? Federalists
The Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison is significant because it established the power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional.
What was the primary concern of the Anti-Federalists? A strong national government would take away power from the states.
The Bill of Rights can be described as a written guarantee of individual rights.
In a federal system of government, power is shared between the state and national levels of government.
In the government provided by the Articles of Confederation, states had one vote regardless of size.
You have heard of the amusement park ―Six Flags Over Texas. The Six Flags name comes from the fact that six nations have ruled over the territory occupied by the state of Texas today. Name the six territories Spain, France, Mexico, Texas Republic, United States of America, Confederate States of America
Federalists beliefs include Advocated strong central government, government should promote economic development, government should promote public improvements
Anti-Federalists beliefs include Feared an overly powerful central government would destroy the rights of individuals and prerogatives of the states
Virginia Federalists leaders: George Washington and James Madison
Virginia Anti-Federalists leaders: Patrick Henry and George Mason
Federalists view on ratifying the Constitution of the United States Favored ratifying the Constitution with no changes; considered a Bill of Rights unnecessary
Anti-Federalists view on ratifying the Constitution of the United States Opposed ratifying the Constitution unless individual rights were protected; considered a Bill of Rights necessary.
Today, Federalists see the primary role of the federal government as solving national problems are heirs to the ideas of the Federalists.
Today, Anti-Federalists are more conservative thinkers echo the original concerns, favor smaller and champion liberty, individual initiative, and free markets.
Alexander Hamilton wrote most of the ________, and was the leader of the __________ Party. Federalist Papers, Federalists
Thomas Jefferson's political view were ______. He is known as the founder of the _____ Party. Anti-Federalists, Democratic-Republican or present day, Democratic Party.
As a Federalists, Hamilton viewed the nature of man as people are self-interested and greedy.
As a Anti-Federalists, Jefferson viewed people as _____. naturally good.
Hamilton wanted a ______ government. He thought the Constitution should be _______ constructed. strong central. Loosely.
Jefferson wanted a _______ government. He thought the Constitution should be _______ constructed. weak central and thought significant power to the states. Strictly
Describe the Missouri Compromise All Missouri was to enter as a slave state, and Maine was to enter as a free state. A line was to be drawn along the southern border of Missouri, and the extension of slavery into territories north of this line was to be forbidden.
Describe the Compromise of 1850 California would enter as a free state. Slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico territories. Slave trade, not slavery would be abolished in the District of Columbia. A stricter fugitive slave law would be put into effect.
Describe the Kansas-Nebraska Act The issue of slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska.
Two political parties emerged in the late 1790s. The Anti-Federalists were led by George Mason. Alexander Hamilton
The election of 1800 is significant because it was a peaceful transfer of power from one party to another.
The Louisiana Purchase, acquired during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, doubled the size of the United States.
President Andrew Jackson represented which newly enfranchised segment of the population? The "Common Man"
Which antislavery newspaper presented slavery as a violation of Christian principles? The Liberator
The practice of rewarding party loyalists with government jobs is called Spoils System.
Which president made opposition to the establishment of a national bank a cornerstone of his administration? Andrew Jackson
Expansion of Democracy under Andrew Jackson included Previous property qualifications eliminated, Number of eligible voters increased, and States‘ delegates nominate presidential candidates at conventions
Which region was most opposed to high protective tariffs? the South
Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a novel that inflamed Northern abolitionist sentiment, was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
April 9, 1865: Generals ____ and ____ met at a farmhouse in Appomattox, Virginia, to sign the agreement that would end the Civil War. Grant, Lee
President of the United States during the Civil War; insisted that the Union be held together, by force if necessary Abraham Lincoln
U.S. senator who became president of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
Union military commander, who won victories over the South after several other Union commanders had failed Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate general of the Army of Northern Virginia (opposed secession, but did not believe the Union should be held together by force); urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans again. Robert E. Lee
Former enslaved African American who became a prominent abolitionist and urged Lincoln to recruit former enslaved African Americans to fight in the Union army Frederick Douglass
Lincoln believed America was not a _______ collection of sovereign states. However, Southerners believed that states had _____ joined the Union and could ______ leave. "one nation," freely, freely
In November 1863, President Lincoln dedicated a cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield. The speech he gave at the dedication has become known as the Gettysburg Address.
The Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, began July 1, 1863. A total of 51,000 Union and Confederate soldiers lost their lives in this battle. The Union victory at Gettysburg was ___________________. a turning point of the war.
Following the Union victory at Antietam, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation (September 1862)What were the results Made the abolition of slavery an aim of the Northern states. Discouraged any interference of foreign governments. Allowed for the enlistment of African American soldiers in the Union Army.
April 12, 1861: ________ forces fired on Fort Sumter in the Charleston, South Carolina, harbor. Confederate
The Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, began July 1, 1863. A total of 51,000 Union and Confederate soldiers lost their lives in this battle. The Union victory at Gettysburg was a _____________________________. turning point of the war.
President Lincoln’s beliefs at the end of the Civil War included the following: The US was one indivisible nation. Secession was illegal, Southern states' governments were illegitimate and never really left Union; Reconstruction - quickly restoring Southern state to Union. To reunify the nation, the South should not be punished.
April 14, 1865: just a few days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.
The assassination of Lincoln just a few days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox enabled Radical Republicans to influence the process of Reconstruction in a manner that made it much more ____ towards the former Confederate states than Lincoln had planned. punitive. The states that seceded were not allowed back into the Union immediately, but were put under military occupation.
Following the Civil War, three amendments were added to the Constitution. They are the 13th Amendment, abolished slavery permanently in the US. 14th Amendment, which prohibited states from denying equal rights under the law to any American. 15th Amendment, which guaranteed voting rights regardless of race, color, or servitude.
The states that seceded were not allowed back into the Union immediately, but were put under military occupation.
The South lay in ruins following the Civil War. It would take ______ for the Southern economy and infrastructure to recover. decades
Following the Civil War, the North and Midwest regions of the nation grew as industrial powers. This growth contributed to the United States becoming an economic power by the twentieth century. The Transcontinental Railroad accelerated the westward movement.
The opening conflict of the Civil War was at Fort Sumter.
Which former slave became a prominent abolitionist and encouraged Lincoln to recruit former slaves to fight for the Union? Frederick Douglass
"All men are created equal" and are ruled by a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people." The quotation above is from a speech given by President Lincoln after the battle of Gettysburg.
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued after the battle of Antietam.
"I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; . . . The excerpt above is from which important document? Emancipation Proclamation
President Lincoln believed it is ___________ for states to secede. illegal
The Civil War ended at the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to General Ulysses S. Grant.
Which amendment to the Constitution states, ―[n]either slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime…shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction? Amendment 13
Which amendment to the Constitution guarantees all citizens due process? Amendment 14
The end of Reconstruction in the South came with the the Compromise of 1877.
After the Civil War, many Americans responded to the incentive of free public land and moved west to take advantage of the _______, which gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land Homestead Act of 1862
Many Southerners, particularly _________, moved west following the Civil War to seek new opportunities. African Americans
New technologies, such as ______ and the __________, helped to open new lands in the West for settlement and made farming profitable by increasing the efficiency of production and linking resources and markets. railroads, mechanical reaper
Immigrate from London in 1910 and became a famous actor and director. Charlie Chaplin
Immigrate from Russia and entered the U.S. in 1900. He created NBC. David Sarnoff
Immigrate from Belgium and entered the U.S. in 1889. He invented Velox photographic paper and Bakelite, the first fully synthetic, nonflammable plastic. Leo Baekland
Imigrate from Germany and entered the U.S. in 1933. He devised the Theory of Relativity. Albert Einstein
Immigrate from Rome and entered the U.S. in 1939. He devised the Theory of Beta Decay; co-invented first man-made nuclear reactor Enrico Fermi
Immigrate from Austria and entered the U.S. in 1939. He devised the Incompleteness Theorem Kurt Gödel
As the nation’s industrial growth continued, cities such as ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____ grew rapidly as manufacturing and transportation centers. The rapid growth of cities caused housing shortages and the need for new public services such as: Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York. sewage and water systems and public transportation.
By 1912, the United States consisted of ___ states. 48
During the period from the Civil War to World War I, the United States underwent an economic transformation that involved the development of an industrial economy, the expansion of big business, the growth of large-scale agriculture, and the rise of national labor unions and industrial conflict
Industrial Leaders (and their claim to fame) of the Post Reconstruction time period were • Andrew Carnegie: steel industry • J. P. Morgan: financial industry • John D. Rockefeller: oil industry • Cornelius Vanderbilt: railroad industry
The reasons for economic transformation of America during this period included the following: • Laissez-faire capitalism and special considerations (e.g., land grants to railroad builders)• The increasing labor supply from immigration and migration from farms • America’s possession of a wealth of natural resources and navigable rivers
After reconstruction, many Southern state governments passed "Jim Crow" laws forcing separation of the races in public places.
African Americans were harassed, intimidated, and sometimes lynched. They looked to the courts to safeguard their rights. However, the United States Supreme Court ruled on civil rights issues. Their rulings, as in the case of ______ for African Americans. Plessy v. Ferguson, upheld the "Jim Crow" laws and did not provide relief for African Americans.
During the early twentieth century, African Americans began the ______ to Northern cities in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South. "Great Migration"
In responses of African Americans to discrimination and segregation, Ida B. Wells led an antilynching crusade and called on the federal government to take action.
In responses of African Americans to discrimination and segregation, Booker T. Washington believed the way to equality was through vocational education and economic success; he accepted social separation.
In responses of African Americans to discrimination and segregation, W.E.B. DuBois believed that education was meaningless without equality. He supported political equality for African Americans by helping to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
The _________ used government to institute reforms for problems created by industrialization. Examples of reform include Theodore Roosevelt’s "Square Deal" and Woodrow Wilson’s "New Freedom." Progressive Movement
The goals of the Progressive Movement included the following: • Government controlled by the people • Guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulation • Elimination of social injustices
Working conditions for the 1900s labor included the following: • Dangerous working conditions • Child labor • Long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits • Company towns • Employment of women
Accomplishments of the Progressive Movement: New forms of local government - meet needs of increasing urbanization • Legislative reforms in state government • Primary elections, direct election of U.S. Senators, • Muckraking literature - unsafe/difficult working conditions, • Growth of labor unions
Accomplishment of Labor Unions during the early 1900s: Limited work hours • Regulated work conditions • Child labor laws
Legislation to address unfair business practices included the ___________, which prevents any business structure that "restrains trade" (monopolies), and the __________, which outlaws price-fixing and exempts unions from the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Clayton Anti-Trust Act
• A forerunner of modern protest movements • benefited from strong leadership (e.g., Susan B. Anthony)• encouraged women to enter the labor force during World War I • resulted in ____ Amendment to the Constitution. Women’s suffrage, 19th
The Homestead Act of 1862 contributed to the growth of the western part of the United States by providing free public land to those that would live in the western territory.
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, immigrants to the United States came mostly from Southern and eastern Europe.
A large number of workers on the Transcontinental Railroad came from China.
Immigrants arriving in the United States in the early 1900s faced prejudice based on differences.
Which inventor perfected the light bulb and electricity as a source of power? Thomas Edison
Which statement about new technology encouraging westward movement of the population is true? The reaper made farming in the West more prosperous.
Henry Ford’s most important innovation was the assembly line.
The initiative, referendum, and recall increased voter participation in government.
The primary impact of the Progressive Movement on workers was increased wages and improved working conditions.
Theodore Roosevelt’s administration was known as the New Frontier.
In an effort to open trade opportunities for the US in China, Secretary of State John Hay proposed in 1899 an ________ to European leaders and Japan, calling for equal trading rights in China for all countries. Open Door Policy
A policy that encouraged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin American countries in order to discourage their reliance on European countries for economic assistance. Dollar Diplomacy
Growth in international trade during the late 1800s and early 1900s contributed to a ― global economy.
By 1870, Americans living in Hawaii controlled a large portion of the land and trade. By 1886, the United States granted Hawaii the right to ship sugar to the United States tariff-free in exchange for control of _________ Pearl Harbor.
In 1890, the __________ imposed tariffs on Hawaiian sugar, creating an economic crisis in Hawaii. McKinley Tariff
In 1893, with the help of United States marines and support of the United States minister to Hawaii, a new government was established in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.
Events of the Spanish-American War by dates: (1) The USS Maine is blown up in the Havana Harbor. (2) The United States officially declares war against Spain. (3) The U.S. Navy defeats Spain in Manila Bay. • – U.S. Marines land in Cuba. (1) February 15, 1898, (2) April 25, 1898, (3) May 1, 1898, (4) June 10, 1898
Events (con't)of the Spanish-American War by dates: (5) The Philippines declares independence from Spain. (6) Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders win the Battle of San Juan Hill. (7) Fighting ends. (8) The Treaty of Paris is signed in Paris. (5) June 12, 1898, (6) July 1, 1898, (7) August, 1898, (8) December 10, 1898
In November 1903, the United States supported Panama in her quest for independence from Colombia. In return for this support, the United States was granted unending control over a ten-mile-wide strip of land in Panama in order to build the Panama Canal.
He assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary because Austria-Hungary was preventing the Serbian government from creating a large, independent Slavic state. June of 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist
By July 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on _______, which had an alliance with Russia. Serbia
By August 1914, Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary, declared war on ____ and _____. Germany attacked through Belgium, and Great Britain entered the war against Germany. Russia and France
__________, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and Germany were at war with Serbia, Russia, France, and Great Britain. Austria-Hungary
In May, 1915, ____ attacked Austria-Hungary.The United States remained _____ as the war progressed. Italy, neutral
The United States’ decision to enter the war in _____ was the result of British-American connections and specific actions by the _____, especially their use of submarine warfare. 1917, Germans
_________ speech in support of the war stated: "The world must be made safe for democracy." President Woodrow Wilson’s
The Unites States’ entry into World War I gave the Allies an ______, as both sides involved were exhausted by this time. advantage
The ________ to end fighting in World War I was signed at 5:05 a.m. in Germany. The cease-fire went into effect at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month (11:00 a.m. Germany time, November 11, 1918). armistice
Terms of Treaty of Versailles include: Divided Germany’s colonies. Czechoslovakia, Created Yugoslavia, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, & Lithuania. France reclaimed Alsace-Lorraine & won Saarland. Germany forced to pay war reparations. Rhineland demilitarized. Germany reduced army & navy size.
President Woodrow Wilson proposed in his Fourteen Points a League of Nations. The League of Nations was ____. The United States Senate ___ approve the Treaty of Versailles, and the United States ____ participate in the League of Nations. an international body devoted to preventing wars. did not, did not
The Open Door Policy proposed equal trading rights in China for all countries.
President Taft’s dollar diplomacy urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin American countries
Dollar diplomacy was designed to discourage European intervention in Latin America.
The Spanish-American War expanded the power of the United States by ecouraging Panama to seek independence from Colombia.
During World War I, two of the Central Powers were Germany and Austria-Hungary
Woodrow Wilson’s plan to end all causes of war was known as the Fourteen Points.
Which territory was acquired as a result of the Spanish American war? Puerto Rico
America abandoned her policy of isolationism in the late nineteenth century in order to obtain overseas markets for goods
The Open Door Policy was proposed by Secretary of State John Hay.
Which of the following is a true statement about the Treaty of Versailles? The United States‘ failed to ratify the treaty.
The ______________ was a period of worldwide economic crisis lasting from 1929 through 1941. Great Depression
Causes of the Great Depression include overspeculation in the stock market • overborrowing • overproduction in factories and farms • uneven distribution of wealth • failure by the Federal Reserve to monitor banks • high protective tariffs
On October 29, 1929, the stock market crashed.
The Great Depression impacted large segments of the United States such as: • unemployment increased homelessness increased • workers became more militant • farmers lost their farms • workers migrated in search of jobs.
The mediums of communications and expansion of popular culture in the 1920s: radio, movies, and newspapers
President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s radio broadcasts were known as Fireside Chats
The role of women in America changed most significantly in 1920s due to the passage of the 19th Amendment.
Three reasons the Stock Market crashed in 1929: 1) overspeculation in the stock market by investors. 2)excessive expansion of credit after World War I. 3)business failures led to bankruptcies.
Impact of the Great Depression: Unemployment and homelessness. Collapse of financial system. Political unrest as labor unions grew militant
What was the legacy of the New Deal? Stronger belief in government responsibility to deliver public services and to intervene in the economy
The Federal Reserve System’s actions in the later 1920s failed to prevent the collapse of the banking system.
The New Deal permanently altered the role of government in the economy.
What significant event occured between the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the beginning of World War II? The Great Depression
The Great Depression ultimately ended following United States involvement in World War II.
The mood of the United States following World War I and before World War II was isolationist and desperate.
In June of 1941, _____ invaded the Soviet Union and attacked Leningrad, the Crimean Peninsula, and Moscow Germany
When Germany invaded Poland, the United States remained _____, but deals were unofficially worked out to aid allies Britain and France, the Soviet Union, and China. neutral
During the 1930s, a militaristic ______ invaded and brutalized Manchuria and China as it sought military and economic domination over Asia. Japan declared all-out war on ______ in 1937. In 1940, Japan signed an alliance with ____ and ____(the Axis). Japan, China, Germany and Italy
The United States refused to recognize Japanese conquests in Asia and imposed an embargo on exports of _____ and _____ to Japan, which Japan desperately needed. oil and steel
Congress passed the______ that allowed the United States to sell or lend war materials to "any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S." He compared to lending a neighbor a garden hose if their house was on fire. Lend-Lease Act
Japan carried out an air attack on American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on _______. The attack destroyed much of the American Pacific fleet and killed several thousand Americans. December 7, 1941,
Roosevelt referred to the attack on Pearl Harbor it "a date that will live in infamy" as he asked Congress to______________ on December 8, 1941. declare war on Japan
After Pearl Harbor, Hitler honored a pact with _____ and Germany declared war on the United States. The debates over _________ in the United States were over. World War II was now a true world war, and the United States was fully involved. Japan, isolationism
Most American military resources were targeted for ______ in a strategy to "Defeat Hitler First." The Allies, namely Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States, were united in this strategy. Europe
In the Pacific, American military strategy called for an ________ campaign, seizing islands closer and closer to Japan, using them as bases for air attacks on Japan, and cutting off Japanese supplies through submarine warfare against Japanese shipping. "island hopping"
Following _______, Japan invaded Philippines and Indonesia, and hoped that America would accept Japanese predominance in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. However, American conduct a bloody and costly war to reverse ______gains. Pearl Harbor, Japanese
In the battle of __________ , German forces threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British, who stopped Germany’s Field Marshal Rommel 200 miles from Suez El Alamein in 1942
On ______ , June 6, 1944, American and Allied troops landed in German-occupied France, storming the beaches in Normandy. A major turning point of war in Europe, Western Europe was liberated from Hitler. D-Day
After Russia reached Berlin in April 1945, _____ killed himself, and the remaining German leaders surrendered on May 7. Hitler
In June 1942 in the Battle of Midway American naval forces defeated __________. The American victory ended the Japanese threat to Hawaii. This victory was a turning point of the war in the Pacific. a much larger Japanese force as it prepared to seize Midway Island.
In early 1945, the Allies fought hard to capture ______ and ______to provide refueling and launching places for planes. They succeeded in capturing both islands, Casualities: 120,000 Japanese and 18,000 Allied troops, mostly United States Marines. Iwo Jima and Okinawa. (Japanese soldiers, Kamikaze pilots, and civilians committed suicide rather than surrender.)
President Harry Truman ordered the use of _______ on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to force the Japanese to surrender. Shortly after the bombs were used, Japan surrendered on V-J (Victory over Japan) Day, August 14, 1945. atomic bombs (Tens of thousands of people were killed in both cities, with more to die later from radiation poisoning)
During WWII, Nearly ______ African Americans served in all-black units commanded by white officers. 1 million
During WWII, the all-black unit known as the _________, also known as the Black Eagles, fought in North Africa and Italy, escorted heavy bombers, and destroyed or damaged 400 Axis aircraft. Tuskegee Airmen
During WWII, thousands of ____________ served in segregated units. The 442nd Nisei Regiment became the most decorated military unit in United States history Japanese Americans
During WWII, many ____ soldiers were "code-talkers" who sent vital messages in a code based on the ancient language of their people that the Japanese could not decipher. Navajo
During WWII, thousands of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans served, and many were awarded medals for bravery.
The third Geneva Convention of 1929 established rules for treatment of ____________: Not to be treated as criminals but humanely, and were to be returned home when the war was over. The Geneva Convention rules were most closely followed by Europeans. prisoners of war
During WWII, a code of honor and a reverence for the ______ led Japanese pilots to commit suicide rather than surrender: they dove their bomb-loaded planes into targets (kamikaze attacks). Emperor
The Nazis were determined to exterminate all Jews under German rule. In large camps they overworked, starved, and used gas chambers to kill ______. The Nazis called it the ________ know as _______. 6 million Jews, "Final Solution," genocide
Another 5 million people, including Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, and others labeled ________. (homosexuals, the mentally ill, political dissidents) were also exterminated. undesirables
In the __________ after the war, Nazi leaders and others were convicted of war crimes, crimes against humanity. They emphasized individual responsibility for actions during a war, regardless of orders received. Nuremberg trials
Different government agencies set ______ , negotiated with labor organizations, and ________ goods at home so they could be used in the war effort. prices, rationed
The federal government worked closely with industry to control _______ during World War II. economic resources
To finance the war, the government raised the ______ on income that citizens had to pay and sold ________. taxes, war bonds
Women increasingly participated in the _______ to replace men serving in the military (e.g., Rosie the Riveter). ______ also volunteered for and filled noncombat roles in the armed forces, including that of nurses. workforce, Women
More than 1 million African Americans worked in ________ industries during World War II. Many migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants. campaigned for victory in war and equality at home. defense, African Americans
Thousands of Mexicans _______ to the United States to work on farms. migrated
Although many citizens volunteered for military service, the government used the ______ to provide sufficient personnel for the war effort. draft
The United States government maintained strict _______ of reports on the war. International communications, communications between government agencies, and the stories of reporters traveling with the troops were monitored and censored. censorship,
After Pearl Harbor, the ________ industry produced movies, plays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways. entertainment
Public ______ and _____ campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort. morale and ad
Anger at the Japanese during the war led to increased ______ against _________, who were viewed as a security threat to the U.S. The false belief that Japanese Americans were aiding the enemy led to the internment of Japanese Americans. prejudice, Japanese Americans
The Supreme Court _____ the government’s right to act against Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the United States. upheld
Years later, the United States government issued an apology to Japanese Americans and made_____________ to the survivors of the internment camps. restitution payments
The immediate event that started World War II was Germany‘s invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939.
Germany encountered no successful resistance from any European country until it sought to defeat Great Britain.
Although officially neutral, the United States increasingly helped Britain through actions such as the Lend-Lease Act.
After aligning itself with Germany and Italy, the island country of Japan sought to control Asia and the Pacific
The standoff in negotiations between the United States and Japan involved imposition of an embargo on exports of oil and steel to Japan.
"A date which will live in infamy" was President Roosevelt’s description of the bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japan.
The principal war strategy that the United States and her allies agreed to pursue was to defeat Hitler first.
Name three reasons defeating Germany in North Africa was important: 1) keep Middle East oil out of Germany‘s hands, 2) establish a military route to Europe through Italy, and 3)eliminate one route Germany could use to attack Russia.
The main reason the Soviet Union became an ally of Britain and later the United States was because the Soviet Union was attacked by Germany in spite of their nonaggression pact
The liberation of Europe from Hitler began with the invasion of Normandy Beach on the coast of France.
The Pacific victory that ended the Japanese threat to Hawaii and encouraged additional victories island-by-island was the battle of Midway.
President Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan was influenced by 1)fear that an invasion of Japan would mean death for thousands of American soldiers. 2) refusal of Japan to surrender in spite of their losses. 3) thousands of American lives already lost in the war in the Pacific
Thousands of African Americans soldiers, including the Tuskegee airmen or Black Eagles, served bravely in World War II despite discrimination at home and segregated units.
Despite removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast Japanese Americans, or Nisei, served honorably in segregated regiments
The Navajo code-talkers were instrumental in creating a communication code that the Japanese could not break.*
The third Geneva Convention held in 1929 provided rules for humane treatment for prisoners of war.
Hitler’s plan to eliminate all Jews from the countries that Germany controlled was called the Final Solution.
The trials that judged the crimes of Nazi leaders at the end of World War II were held in Nuremberg, Germany
The mobilization in the United States for the war in Europe and Asia was possible because of the close working relationship between government and industry
"Rosie the Riveter" symbolized the role of women in the workforce.
A group that was not important in war production at home was the Japanese population
The government policy of removing Japanese Americans from the West Coast and other places into special camps was called internment.
During World War II, the United States government controlled information about the war through censorship
The following methods were used to maintain public morale and keep Americans focused on winning the war collections of tin cans and aluminum foil, ad and poster campaigns, and patriotic movies
Which of these events occurred first? Germany invades Poland.
Which country was divided into four zones following World War II? Germany
The United States occupation of Japan following World War II ended when Japan adopted a democratic form of government.
Which economic recovery initiative, a response to American concerns about communist expansion, provided grants and loans to war-torn European countries following World War II? Marshall Plan
Which organization was established in 1945 to promote justice and cooperation in solving international problems? United Nations
The Cold War foreign policy to stop communist aggression into other countries was known as containment.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a defensive alliance of the United States and western European countries, was formed to prevent invasions from the Soviets.
In which East Asian country did the United States support anticommunist forces in a conflict during the 1950s aimed at preventing the spread of communism? Korea
Which Southeast Asian country, part of what was formerly known as French Indochina, became the site of the longest United States military conflict? Vietnam
The lack of United States military success in the conflict in Southeast Asia during the 1960s led to which president’s decision not to run for re-election? Lyndon Johnson
The United States invasion of Cambodia in 1970 resulted in antiwar protests on some college campuses. National Guard troops shot and killed four students at which university when the guard was called in to restore order? Kent State University
Following United States military withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Vietnam adopted a communist form of government.
The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba was an attempt by United States to overthrow the Castro government.
The anticommunist crusade promoted by Senator Joseph McCarthy resulted in the condemnation of Senator McCarthy by the Senate.
During the Cold War, Virginia’s economy benefited as private companies were awarded large defense contracts.
The United States Supreme Court case of ________________ established that segregated schools are unequal and therefore unconstitutional. It ordered public schools in the United States to desegregate. Brown v. Board of Education
Virginia’s response to Brown v. Board of Education resulted in a period known as ____________. Public schools were closed, private schools were established, and whites moved away from urban school systems. Massive Resistance
In 1963, approximately 250,000 people participated in a march on Washington, a nonviolent gathering to support _____________ legislation. civil rights
The _______ Act of _____, passed during Lyndon Johnson’s presidency, prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin, and desegregated public accommodations. Civil Rights, 1964
The _________ Act of ____, passed during Lyndon Johnson’s presidency, outlawed literacy tests, resulted in federal registrars being sent to the South to register voters, and resulted in an increase in African American voters. Voting Rights, 1965
The ____________________ founded in 1909, used the courts to challenge segregation. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP),
Which Supreme Court case overturned a lower court ruling and established a precedent by declaring that separate but equal facilities are unconstitutional? Brown v. Board of Education
Who served on the legal team for the NAACP in a landmark court case and went on to become the first African American appointed to the United States Supreme Court? Thurgood Marshall
Virginia responded to the Supreme Court order to desegregate their public schools by closing some public schools.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.
African Americans secured passage of civil rights legislation by working through the court system and using mass protests.
Virginia employed what policy to avoid integrating schools? Massive Resistance
Which president was most closely identified with the passage of significant Civil Rights legislation? Lyndon Johnson
"I have a dream that one day out in the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood." Who made this famous speech? Martin Luther King, Jr. given on the steps of the Lincoln memorial
Which organization sought increased rights by using the courts? National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Created by: kltnunley