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SOL US History
A review of United States History to 1877.
|Located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico with Broad lowlands providing many excellent harbors
|Old, eroded mountains (oldest mountain range in North America)
|Wrapped around the Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape
|Rolling flatlands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills
|Flat lands that gradually increase in elevation westward; grasslands
|Rugged mountains stretching from Alaska almost to Mexico; high elevations
|the Continental Divide
|determines the directional flow of rivers
|Basin and Range
|Located west of the Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades Varying elevations containing isolated mountain ranges
|the lowest point in North America
|Located along the Pacific Coast, stretching from California to Canada Rugged mountains and fertile valleys
|The Atlantic Ocean
|served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants.
|The Ohio River
|was the gateway to the west.
|Inland port cities
|grew in the Midwest along the Great Lakes.
|The Mississippi and Missouri rivers were used to
|transport farm and industrial products. They were links to United States ports and other parts of the world.The Columbia River
|The Colorado River
|was explored by the Spanish.
|The Rio Grande
|forms the border with Mexico.
|The Gulf of Mexico
|provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America.
|The St. Lawrence River
|forms part of the northeastern border with Canada and connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.
|is located on the Nottoway River in southeastern Virginia.
|People lived in Cactus Hill as early as
|18,000 years ago makes it one of the oldest archaeological sites in North America.
|inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year.
|homeland includes the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate.
|inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains, which is characterized by dry grasslands.
|inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.
|Iroquois homeland includes
|northeast North America, called the Eastern Woodlands, which is heavily forested.
|Things that come directly from nature
|People working to produce goods and services
|Goods produced and used to make other goods and services
|Obstacles to the explorations
|includes trying to understand Cherokee, Chickataw, Inuit, Sioux and Seminole languages.
|Ghana, Mali, and Songhai became powerful by
|controlling trade in West Africa.
|carried goods from Europe to West African empires, trading metals, cloth, and other manufactured goods for gold
|Roanoke Island (Lost Colony)
|was established as an economic venture.
|the first permanent English settlement in North America (1607), was an economic venture by the Virginia Company.
|was settled by separatists from the Church of England who wanted to avoid religious persecution.
|Massachusetts Bay Colony
|was settled by the Puritans to avoid religious persecution.
|was settled by the Quakers, who wanted freedom to practice their faith without interference.
|was settled by people who had been in debtors’ prisons in England. They hoped to experience economic freedom and start a new life in the New World.
|King George III:
|British king during the Revolutionary era
|British general who surrendered at Yorktown
|Championed the cause of independence
|Commander of the Continental Army
|Major author of the Declaration of Independence
|Outspoken member of the House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with his “Give me liberty or give me death” speech
|Prominent member of the Continental Congress; helped frame the Declaration of Independence; helped gain French support for American independence
|Enslaved African American who wrote poems and plays supporting American independence and who eventually gained her freedom
|Patriot who made a daring ride to warn colonists of British arrival
|Colonists in Boston were shot after taunting British soldiers.
|Boston Tea Party:
|Samuel Adams and Paul Revere led patriots in throwing tea into Boston Harbor to protest tea taxes.
|First Continental Congress:
|Delegates from all colonies except Georgia met to discuss problems with Great Britain and to promote independence.
|Battles at Lexington and Concord:
|The first armed conflicts of the Revolutionary War
|Approval of the Declaration of Independence:
|The colonies declared independence from Great Britain (July 4, 1776).
|Battle of Saratoga:
|This American victory was the turning point in the war.
|Surrender at Yorktown:
|This was the colonial victory over forces of Lord Cornwallis that marked the end of the Revolutionary War.
|Signing of the Treaty of Paris:
|Great Britain recognized American independence in this treaty.
|Some colonists’ defense of their own land, principles, and beliefs and Additional support from France
|The Great Compromise
|decided how many votes each state would have in the Senate and the House of Representatives.
|The structure of the new national government included
|three separate branches of government:
|Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation led to
|the effort to draft a new constitution.
|The Bill of Rights
|Based on the Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason) and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson)
|Jefferson bought land from France (the Louisiana Purchase), which doubled the size of the United States.
|In the Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the Louisiana Purchase and the Oregon Territory
|from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
|Spain gave this to the United States through a treaty.
|was added to the United States after it became an independent republic.
|This Territory was divided by the United States and Great Britain.
|War with Mexico resulted in this and the southwest territory becoming part of the United States.
|the idea that expansion was for the good of the country and was the right of the country
|The cotton gin was invented by
|Eli Whitney. It increased the production of cotton and thus increased the need for slave labor to cultivate and pick the cotton.
|Jo Anderson (an enslaved African American) and Cyrus McCormick
|worked to invent the reaper. McCormick was an entrepreneur who brought the reaper to market. The reaper increased the productivity of the American farmer.
|The steamboat was improved by the entrepreneur
|The steam locomotive
|provided faster land transportation.
|People in each state would decide the slavery issue (“popular sovereignty”).
|Missouri Compromise (1820):
|Missouri entered the Union as a slave state; Maine entered the Union as a free state.
|Border states (slave states)
|Delaware Maryland Kentucky & Missouri
|Opposed the spread of slavery and Issued the Emancipation Proclamation
|Was president of the Confederate States of America
|Ulysses S. Grant
|Was general of the Union army that defeated Lee
|Robert E. Lee
|Was leader of the Army of Northern Virginia and Urged Southerners to accept defeat at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to fight on
|Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
|Was a skilled Confederate general from Virginia
|Was an enslaved African American who escaped to the North and became an abolitionist
|The firing on Fort Sumter, S.C.,
|began the war.
|The first Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)
|was the first major battle.
|The signing of the Emancipation Proclamation
|made “freeing the slaves” the new focus of the war. Many freed African Americans joined the Union army.
|The Battle of Vicksburg
|divided the South; the North controlled the Mississippi River.
|The Battle of Gettysburg
|was the turning point of the war; the North repelled Lee’s invasion.
|Lee’s surrender to Grant
|at Appomattox Court House in 1865 ended the war.
|was a major killer.
|African American surveyor who helped design the plans for Washington DC.
|Spain: Francisco Coronado
|claimed the Southwest of the present-day United States for Spain.
|France: Samuel de Champlain
|established the French settlement of Québec.
|Robert La Salle
|claimed the Mississippi River Valley for France.
|John Cabot explored eastern Canada.
|The Portuguese made voyages of discovery along
|the coast of West Africa.
|Articles of Confederation
|Provided for a weak national government & Gave Congress no power to tax
|The first ten amendments to the Constitution provide
|a written guarantee of individual rights (e.g., freedom of speech, freedom of religion).
|Federal court system was established & The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution of the United States of America.
|Benjamin Banneker, an African American astronomer and surveyor,
|helped complete the design for the city.
|A two-party system emerged during his administration.
|He bought Louisiana from France (Louisiana Purchase).
|Lewis and Clark explored
|new land west of the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
|The War of l812 caused European nations to gain respect for the United States.
|He introduced the Monroe Doctrine
|a warning European nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
|Which groups settled New England
|Puritans and Pilgrims
|Most individuals settling in Virginia were seeking
|Which colony did the Virginia Company of London establish in 1607?
|The primary pull factors for European colonization in North America was
|religious freedom and economic opportunities.
|The American Indian view of interaction with English settlers
|The American Indians worried about food sources for the future.
|The New England region is present day
|Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island
|The Middle Atlantic region is present day
|Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
|The Southern region is present day
|Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia
|The New England region products & commerce include
|lumber, shipbuilding, trade, molasses, fur trade, fishing, and subsistence farming
|The Middle Atlantic region products & commerce include
|shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and trade
|The Southern region products & commerce include
|cash-crops, indigo, rice, tobacco, and plantations
|New England's reason for settlement was
|Middle Atlantic's reason for settlement was
|economic opportunity and religious freedom
|The Southern region's reason for settlement was
|economic opportunity and business venture (Virginia Company of London)
|What groups of people made up the New England region.
|Pilgrims and Puritans
|The economy of the New England colonies was partially based
|on shipbuilding and fishing
|The economy of the middle colonies was based primarily on
|small-scale farming, shipbuilding, and trade.
|The colonial region whose economy was based on shipbuilding, lumbering, and small-scale subsistence farming was
|the New England
|Why was slavery most predominant in the Southern colonies?
|Large-scale agriculture required extensive labor
|In an attempt to prevent conflict between the colonists and the Indians, Britain issued
|the Proclamation of 1763. This act prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists were angered by it and ignored it
|In time, colonization led to ideas of representative ________ and religious ________ that over several centuries would inspire similar transformations in other parts of the world.
|New England colonies used ______ in the operation of government.
|Virginia and the other Southern colonies had a social structure based on
|family status and the ownership of land.
|The growth of a plantation-based agricultural economy in the hot, humid coastal lowlands of the Southern colonies required _______ labor on a large scale.
|Most plantation labor needs eventually came to be satisfied by the
|forcible importation of Africans.
|To help cover the costs of the French and Indian War, the British imposed taxes on the colonists.
|Stamp Act, 1765
|All colonies except ____ sent representatives to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774. This Congress issued as its final resolution called the ______.
|Georgia, The Declaration of Resolves. King George III ordered British troops to put down the rebellion.
|On April 19, 1775, Minutemen and British troops met at _______. Shots were fired, and ___ colonists were killed. More fighting broke out as the British moved on to _____ . At least 273 British soldiers were killed or wounded on the march back to ___ .
|Lexington, Massachusetts. eight, Concord, Boston
|Patriots remained loyal to Britain and agreed with taxation as a means of paying for Britain protecting settlers from Indian attacks, for covering the cost of administering the Empire, and for defending against a French comeback.
|Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called _____ in January of 1776. This pamphlet challenged the King of England’s rule of the colonies. It also shifted the focus of colonial anger from the Parliament to the Crown.
|Which English immigrant challenged the rule of the American colonies by the King of England in a pamphlet called Common Sense?
|The American Revolution began with a battle between British and colonial troops at
|Lexington and Concord
|The contribution of which country’s army and navy helped the colonists win the American Revolution?
|Which are the key principles of the Declaration of Independence?
|Equality, Liberty, Constraint
|According to Locke, if a government failed to fulfill its social contract with its citizens,
|they could overthrow the government for a new one.
|"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." is a quote from
|Declaration of Independence
|Why was George Washington important to the American Revolution?
|He was a strong commander of the Continental Army.
|The Articles of Confederation was unsuccessful as a government system because
|it established a weak national government
|The author of the Bill of Rights and the "Virginia Plan" proposing a federal government with three branches was
|The concepts used when drafting the Bill of Rights were derived from which documents?
|Virginia Declaration of Rights and Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
|The Bill of Rights can be described as
|a written guarantee of individual rights.
|In a federal system of government, power is shared between
|the state and national levels of government.
|In the government provided by the Articles of Confederation,
|states had one vote regardless of size.
|Describe the Missouri Compromise
|Missouri was to enter as a slave state, and Maine was to enter as a free state. A line was to be drawn along the southern border of Missouri, and the extension of slavery into territories north of this line was to be forbidden.
|Describe the Compromise of 1850
|California would enter as a free state. Slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico territories.
|Describe the Kansas-Nebraska Act
|The issue of slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska.
|The Louisiana Purchase,
|acquired during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, doubled the size of the United States.
|Which region was most opposed to high protective tariffs?
|Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a novel that inflamed Northern abolitionist sentiment, was written by
|Harriet Beecher Stowe.
|April 9, 1865: Generals ____ and ____ met at a farmhouse in Appomattox, Virginia, to sign the agreement that would end the Civil War.
|President of the United States during the Civil War; insisted that the Union be held together, by force if necessary
|U.S. senator who became president of the Confederate States of America
|Union military commander, who won victories over the South after several other Union commanders had failed
|Ulysses S. Grant
|Confederate general of the Army of Northern Virginia (opposed secession, but did not believe the Union should be held together by force); urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans again.
|Robert E. Lee
|Former enslaved African American who became a prominent abolitionist and urged Lincoln to recruit former enslaved African Americans to fight in the Union army
|Lincoln believed America was not a _______, but a whole country that could not be divided.
|collection of states.
|In November 1863, President Lincoln dedicated a cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield. The speech he gave at the dedication has become known as the
|The Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, began July 1, 1863. A total of 51,000 Union and Confederate soldiers lost their lives in this battle. The Union victory at Gettysburg was ___________________.
|a turning point of the war.
|April 12, 1861: ________ forces fired on Fort Sumter in the Charleston, South Carolina, harbor.
|April 14, 1865: just a few days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, Abraham Lincoln was
|The South lay in ruins following the Civil War. It would take ______ for the Southern economy and infrastructure to recover.
|The opening conflict of the Civil War was at
|Which former slave became a prominent abolitionist and encouraged Lincoln to recruit former slaves to fight for the Union?
|The Emancipation Proclamation was issued after the battle of
|"I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; . . . The excerpt above is from which important document?
|President Lincoln believed it is ___________ for states to secede.
|The Civil War ended at the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse on April 9,
|Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to