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Nervous System

Huntington's Chorea an inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons
Encephalitis inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick
Parkinson's Disease a degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system- characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms
Alzheimer's Disease deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning. It is a progressive and extremely debilitating. It begins with minor memory loss and progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, and physical functioning- frequently occurring in persons over 65
Bell's Palsy a temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed.
Cerebral Palsy a collective term used to describe congenital (at birth) brain damage that is permanent but not progressive. It is characterized by the child's lack of control of voluntary muscles.
Multiple Sclerosis a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it sclerosed (hardened) or scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impluses
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups, usually beginning with the hands and progressing to the shoulders, upper arms, and legs. It is caused by decreased nerve innervation to the muscle groups
Efferent Nerves (Motor Nerves) transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS.
Peripheral Nervous System the part of the nervous system outside the CNS, consisting of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Sympathetic Nerves Nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body function such as increasing the heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and raising the blood pressure
Parasympathetic Nerves nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions such as slowing the heart rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions, and relaxing sphincters
Autonomic Nervous System the part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body. It has two divisions. The SNS and the PNS.
Central Nervous System One of the two main divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord
Afferent Nerves (Sensory Nerves) Transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS
Anesthesia Without feeling or sensation
Anencephaly An absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth, a congenital disorder.
Medulla Oblongata One of the three parts of the brain stem. The most essential part of the brain in that it contains the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers of the brain
Brain Stem The stemlike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord. The brainstem contains the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata
Cerebellum The part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement, located behind the brain stem
Cerebrum The largest and uppermost part of the brain. It controls conciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements
Dendrite A projection that extends from the nerve cell body. It receives impulses and conducts them on to the cell body.
Oligodendrocyte A type of neuroglial cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system. Its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath
Pineal Body A small cone-shaped structure (located in the diencephalon of the brain) thought to be involved in regulating the body's biological clock and that produces melatonin (pineal gland)
Interneurons Connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves
Axon The part of the nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body
Hyperesthesia Excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain or touch
Paresthesia A sensation of numbness or tingling
Ataxia Without muscular coordination
Agraphia The inability to convert one's thoughts into writing
Dysphasia Difficult speech
Syncope Fainting
Thrombosis An abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel
Palliative Soothing
Bradykinesia Abnormally slow movement
Meninges The three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
Thalamus The part of the brain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain. The thalamus receives all sensory stimuli, except those of smell, and relays them to the cerebral cortex
Plexus A network of interwoven nerves
Cephalalgia Pain in the head; headache
Craniotomy A surgical incision into the cranium or skull
Synapse The space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, through which nerve impulses are transmitted
Neurologist A physician who specializes in treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system
Brain Ventricle A small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Lethargy A state of being sluggish
Aura The sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure. It may be a sensation of light or warmth and may precede the attack by hours or only a few seconds
Herpes Zoster An acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox, characterized by painful esicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve; also called shingles
Occlusion Blockage
Hydrocephalus An abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel(s). A congenital disorder
Sciatica Inflammation of the sciatic nerve; characterized by pain along the course of the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg
Quadriplegia Paralysis of all four extremities and the trunk of the body; caused by injury to the spinal cord at the level of the cervical vertebrae
Hemiplegia Paralysis of one half of the body (left or right side)
Neurology The study of the nervous system and its disorders
Neuralgia Severe, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves
Neurosurgeon A physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
Burr Hole A hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill
Neurosurgery Any surgery involving the nervous system. (brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves)
Myelin Sheath A protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body. It acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses
Neuroglia The supporting tissue of the nervous system
Neuron A nerve cell
Nerve A cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. A nerve is macroscopic (able to be seen without the aid of a microscope)
Neuritis Inflammation of a nerve
Cerebrospinal Fluid The fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact
Paraplegia Paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk, usually due to spinal cord injuries
Analgesia Without sensitivity to pain
Narcolepsy Uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep
Epilepsy A syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain resulting in involuntary muscle movements called seizures
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Involves death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow (ischemia) to that area of the brain (AKA stroke)
Electroencephalography Measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp
Romberg Test Used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance
Phagocytosis The process by which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris
Subdural Hematoma A collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid layer of the meninges
Cluster Headache Occurs typically 2 to 3 hours after falling asleep; described as extreme pain around one eye that wakens the person from sleep
Tension Headache Occurs from long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around the face, scalp, upper back, and neck
Coma A deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli
Aphasia Inability to communicate through speech, writing, or sign becuse of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) A noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation
Nerve Block The injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to the area supplied by the nerve or nerves; (AKA conduction anesthesia)
Cerebral Angiography Visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial)
Deficit Any deficiency or variation of the normal, as in a weakness deficit resulting from a cerebrovascular accident
Aneurysm A localized dilation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery; usually caused by hypertension or artherosclerosis
Meningitis (acute bacterial) A serious bacterial infection of the meninges that can have residual debilitating effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome A pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons, causing intermittent or continuous pain that is greatest at night
Lumbar Puncture Involves the insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space, generally between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae below the level of the spinal cord under strict aseptic technique
Whiplash An injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to a sudden back-and-forth jerking movement of the head and neck. Whiplash may occur as a result of an automobile being struck suddenly from the rear.
Cerebral Contusion Small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain; better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue occuring when the brain strikes the inner skull
Cerebral Concussion A brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds. This transient loss of consciousness is usually caused by blunt trauma (a blow) to the head.
Migraine Headache A recurring, pulsating, vascular headache usually developing on one side of the head. It is characterized by a slow onset that may be preceded by an aura, during which a sensory disturbance occurs such as confusion or some visual interference
Petit Mal Seizure Small seizures in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few second; AKA absence seizures
Grand Mal Seizure An epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness and by generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles
Created by: sanzijessica