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OPRAD

Operational Radiological Safety Course

QuestionAnswer
Was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. Its role is to monitor all the licensing and related regulatory functions of nuclear material. The NRC
Implements EPA's and its own standards for protecting the public from radiation. The NRC
Regulates the civilian uses of nuclear materials in the U.S. To protect public health and safety, the environment and the common defense and security. The NRC
1: Licensing of nuclear facilities and the possession. 2: Use and disposal of nuclear materials. 3: The development and implementation of requirements governing licensed activities. 4: Inspection and enforcement activities to assure compliance. The NRC
Is the NRC connected in any way with defense matters or nuclear weapons? No
Charged with protecting people and the environment from harmful and avoidable exposure to radiation. The EPA
Issues standards and guidance to limit human exposure to radiation. The EPA
Works with the public, industry, the states and other government agencies to inform people about radiation's risks and to promote actions that reduce exposure. The EPA
Measure environmental levels of radiation and assesses radiation's effects on people and the environment. The EPA
Responsible for the development of the disposal sys for spent nuclear fuel from the nation's civilian nuclear power plants. The DOE
Responsible for the management and disposal of nuclear waste and other radioactive materials associated with nuclear weapons production at federally owned facilities. The DOE
Is working to clean up its present and former nuclear sites. DOE is cooperating with state governments and private industry to clean up other locations around the US that were contaminated with radiation as a result of government programs. The DOE
Provides technical advice and assistance to states and the private sector in the management and disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The DOE
Responsible for the safe handling and storage of nuclear weapons (in collaboration with DOE) and other military uses of nuclear energy. The DOD
DA publication that establishes policies and procedures for the use of, licensing, disposal, transportation, safety design, and inventory of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation sources. DA PAM 385-24
DA publication provides radiation exposure standards and dosimetry and accident reporting instructions to assure safe use of radiation sources and compliance with all applicable Federal and DOD rules and regulations. DA PAM 385-24
Regulates the transportation of radioactive materials. The DOT
In cooperation with NRC and the states, governs the packaging and transport of radioactive materials. The DOT
Regulates carriers of radioactive materials. The DOT
Establishes standards for x-ray machines and other electronic products to ensure that human health is protected from the radiation produced by these products. Department of Health and Human Services: HHS's Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health
Develops and enforces regulations to protect workers not covered by other agencies from radiation exposure. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
They regulate the sources of radiation that the NRC does not (i.e. naturally occurring radioactive materials such as radium and radon, and radioactive materials produced in particle accelerators, such as cobalt-57) The States
Regulate radiation producing machines, such as particle accelerators and x-ray machines (medical and industrial) The States
The best first source of information about radiation issues, which affect their constituents. The States
What is the Role of the NRC? Regulates us of nuclear material. Licenses facilities that possess, use, or dispose of nuclear material. Inspect licensed facilities. Establish standards governing the activities of licensees. Regulates the use of material.
What is the purpose of the FFCAct (Federal Facility Compliance Act)? Under section 102, the FFCAct specifies that federal facilities be subject to "all civil and administrative penalties and fines, regardless of whether such penalties or fines are punitive or coercive in nature."
What is the primary regulation governing the occupational use of radioactive material in the Army is Department of the Army Pamphlet? DA-PAM 385-24
Identify the types of NRC License. 1: NRC Specific License 2: General License
What is the purpose of a NRC Specific License? is required to produce, transfer, receive, own, possess, use, or dispose of byproduct, source and special nuclear material in excess of the quantities authorized under general license provisions. IE Manufacturers of smoke detectors containing Americium.
What is the purpose of a NRC General License? An explicit permission to transfer, receive, acquire, own, possess use and import the quantities of byproduct material listed in 10CFR31. It does not give permission to manufacture or produce. IE owner of smoke detector.
What is the ARA (Army Radiation Authorization) It covers DA agencies only. IAW DA Pam 385-24, the ARA is required for all sources not regulated by NRC.
What is the ARP (Army Radiation Permit) Non-Army agencies (including, other military services, vendors, and civilian contractors) require an Army radiation permits (ARP) to use, store, or possess ionizing radiation sources on an Army installation.
Army Commands possessing NRC Licenses CECOM: Communication and Electronic Command TACOM: Tank and Automotive Command Aviation and Missile Command
What is the meaning of NORM? Naturally occurring radioactive material Discrete (NORM): relatively high radioactivity concentration in a very small volume. Diffuse (NORM): much lower concentration of radioactivity, but a high volume of waste.
Define the method and purpose accelerator-produced radioactive material. Magnetic fields move atomic particles at high speed before crashing into a preselected target. This reaction produces desired radioactive materials in metallic targets or kills cancer cells where a cancer tumor is the target.
Define the purpose of RSO. 1: Supervise the radiation protection program. 2: Must receive qualification through Radiological Safety Course or Basic Radiological Course 3: Resolve radiation safety issues 4: Promote good radiation safety practices
Each Garrison RSO will - 1: Direct the installation radiation safety program. 2: Assure that personnel receive appropriate radiation safety training 3: Meet all reporting requirements for accidents or incidents. 4: Assure appropriate inventory control 5: Facility Decommission
Every RSO will- Perform or be responsible for the performance of all radiation safety functions that are applicable to Federal, DOD, Army regulations, NRC license, Army reactor permit, and ARA conditions requirements.
Who will be responsible for the establishment of plans and procedures for handling credible emergencies involving radiation and radioactive materials? The RSO
The publication that defines the duties of the RSO. DA PAM 385-24, paragraph 1-4r TRADOC Reg 385-2, FORSCOM Reg 385-1 (day-to-day duties of RSO) AMC Regulation 11-48
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Element
The smallest quantity of an element is referred to as an: Atom
Substances that consist of two or more elements and may be broken down into simpler substances (aka elements) by chemical reaction are known as: Compounds
Applying heat, applying pressure, use of a catalyst or electrolysis Examples of Chemical reactions
The main parts of an atom: Proton (p), Electron (e), and Neutron (n)
Found in the nucleus of the atom.It has mass of approximately 1 amu. Electrically, it has a charge of +1, or we say that it has a positive charge. Proton
Found in the nucleus of the atom. It has a mass a little more than a Proton. It has no electrical charge. Neutron
Orbits outside the nucleus of the atom. The electrical charge of the Electron is considered -1. Will always be balanced by 1 Proton in a stable atom. Electron
A shorthand notation has been developed that quickly indicates the exact structure and characteristics of any atom. It is universal in application and is readily understood in all parts of the world. A & Z Numbering System
One of two or more atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are called "Isotopes" or nuclei of the same element having same atomic number but different mass number are known as: Isotopes
The atom with one proton, one electron and two neutrons is H-3, T3, 1H3 or Tritium
This publication provides a listing of common isotopes used in the military. Provides the Table of Common Radioactive Commodity Isotopes, Uses, Characteristics and Detection Methods. This table depicts general uses, radiation emitted and detect methods. TB 43-0137
The process in which a radioactive nuclei (nuclide or radionuclide) attempts to reach a more stable state by releasing energy or mass in the form of nuclear radiation. Radioactive Decay
A charged particle. I.E. Alpha and Beta Ion
A negative electron stripped from the atom and the remainder of the atom which is now positively charged. Ion Pair
The process of creating charged particles Ionization
The natural decay of radioactive elements may result in several distinct types of nuclear radiation and they are? 1: Alpha 2: Beta 3: Gamma 4: X-ray 5: Neutron
A heavy particle with a positive charge capable of "stealing" electrons by "pulling" them from surrounding atoms. Only capable of traveling about 1-3 centimeters in air. It can create about 10,000 ion pairs/per cm. Internal hazard. Alpha particle
Particle ejected from nucleus with negative charge. Travels at 9/10 speed of light. Pushes electrons out of orbit. Can produce approx 33 ion pairs. Can burn skin and eyes. Internal and external hazard. Beta particles
A wave that originates near nucleus. Travels at near the speed of light in a straight line. Gamma Radiation
One of the oldest units used in radiation safety. The unit of radiation exposure in air and is expressed as the amount of ionization per unit of air due to X-ray or gamma radiation. Roentgen
Was adopted as a replacement for exposure. Represents the amount of energy deposited per unit mass of absorbing material, but it does not describe the biological effects. Rad (absorbed dose)
Two units have a 1:1 ratio, what are they? 1 Rad = 1 cGy
described as one joule of energy deposited in one kilogram of material (1J/kg) 1 gray
The absorbed dose delivered per unit of time where the absorbed dose is equal to the rate multiplied by the time, usually in hours, spent in the area. (D = R x T). absorbed dose rate
Unit that relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to the resulting biological damage. The measurement is necessary because not all radiation has the same biological effect. Rem (Roentgen Equivalent Man)
A modifying factor that is introduced to take into account the different degrees of biological effects that can result following exposure to the same absorbed doses of different types of radiation. The Quality Factor (Q)
The absorbed dose in rads multiplied by the quality factor. (Rem = Rad x Q) dose equivalent
The SI unit for dose equivalent, abbreviated Sv. The absorbed dose in grays multiplied by the quality factor. (Sv = Gy x Q). Sievert
The conventional unit for radioactive surface contamination is: dpm/100cm2 disintegrations per minute, per 100 square centimeters.
When radiation passes through a living cell it will impact the atoms that form molecules. If the molecules break up, the fragments are known as what? free radicals, and ions
Water molecules are the most vulnerable molecules in the body. When irradiated, 2 categories of reaction occur: Primary and Secondary
Secondary reactions have three possible outcomes of the 2 free radicals produced from the primary reactions. 1: H + H: hydrogen gas 2: H + OH: water 3: OH + OH: hydrogen peroxide
Four possibilities that may occur when radiation passes through a cell. 1: It may pass through the cell without damage 2: It may damage the cell, but the cell may be able to repair the damage before it produces new cells. 3: It may kill the cell 4: It may damage the cell in such a way that the damage is passed on - cancer.
The most radiosensitive structure within the cell is: Nucleus
The biological system that is most radiosensitive is: The reproductive system
The most radiosensitive organ which determines whether a person will survive an acute massive whole body radiation dose is: The small intestine
Biological effects of radiation exposure can be classified into three broad catagories which are: 1: Somatic 2: Genetic 3: Teratogenic
Physical effects occurring in the exposed person. Somatic Effect
Abnormalities that may occur in the future children of exposed individuals and in subsequent generations. Genetic Effect (aka hereditary effects)
Effects that may be observed in children who were exposed during the fetal and embryonic stages of development. Teratogenic Effect
Somatic effects are attributed to either acute exposures or chronic exposures which are defined as: Acute exposure: is defined as a large dose of radiation received in a short period of time. Chronic exposure: is small doses received over long periods of time.
What does ALARA mean? As Low As is Reasonably Achievable
What publications address the practical application of ALARA? 1: Regulatory Guides 8.29 "Instructions Concerning Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation 2: Regulatory Guide 8.13 "Instruction Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure" 3: 10 CFR 19.12 4: 10 CFR 20.1208
What are the two main principles of detection: 1: the electrical collection of ions using air or gas 2: scintillation which is light production using crystals and liquid
The most common type of detector is: Geiger Mueller counter
Give two examples of a beta/gamma prob (Geiger-Meuller Detector) that works on the principal of gas ionization that are presently in the Army inventory. AN/VDR-2, and AN/PDR-77
What method of detection is used to determine the pressence of H3 (T3)? Liquid Scintillation
Give an example of a scintillation detector. AN/PDR-77 with Alpha Probe
Give an example of a Multi-channel analysis detector. identiFINDER
Gamma radiations interact indirectly with both orbital electrons and the nucleus in one of the following three methods: 1: Photoelectric effect 2: Compton Effect 3: Pair Production
The two factors that influence shielding efficiency are: 1: The energy of the photon 2: The density of the absorber
What characteristic would indicate that a shield would be good at blocking gamma? High mass density
What characteristic would indicate that a a shield would be good at blocking beta and neutron? Low atomic number
Identify the levels of calibration: 1. Primary (P-Level) 2. Secondary (S-Level) 3. Tertiary (T-Level) 4. Field Level (F-Level)
Created by: oldsmaug