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CHP8 Skeletal; Hyoid, Vertebrae, & Thoracic Bones and Their Markings

Hyoid U-shaped bone in the neck between the mandible and upper part of the larynx; distinction as the only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bone; suspended by ligaments from the styloid processes of the temporal bones
Vertebral Column Not actually column- a flexible, segmented curved rod, forms axis of body; head balanced above, ribs and viscera suspended in front, and lower extremities attached below; encloses the spinal cord
General features of Vertebral Column Anterior part of each vertebra (except the first two cervical) consists of the body; posterior part of the vertebrae consists of the neutral arch, which in turn consists of two pedicles, two laminae, and seven processes projecting from the laminae
Body Main part; flat, round mass located anteriorly; supporting or weight bearing part of the vertebra
Pedicles Short projections extending posteriorly from the body
Lamina Posterior part of the vertebra to which the pedicles join and from which processes project
Neural arch Formed by the pedicles and laminae; protects the spinal cord posteriorly; congenital absence of one or more neural arches is known as spina bifida (the cord may protrude right through the skin)
Spinous process Sharp process projecting through inferiorly from laminae in the midline
Transverse processes Right and left lateral projections from laminae
Superior articulating processes Project upward from laminae; have smooth superior articular facets
inferior articulating processes Project downward from laminae; articulate with the superior articulating processes of vertebrae below; have smooth inferior articular facets
Spinal foramen hole in the center of the vertebra formed by union of the body, pedicles, and laminae; spinal foramina, when vertebrae are superimposed on one another, form the spinal cavity that houses the spinal cord
Intervertebral foramina Opening between the vertebrae through which teh spinal nerves emerge
Cervical Vertebrae 1-7 vertebrae; the foramen in ea transverse process for transmission of the vertebral artery, vein, & plexus of nerves; short bifurcated spinous process except on 7th vertebrae, it is xtra long & palpable; body=small, foramina= lrg & triangular
Atlas 1st cervical vertebrae; lacks body & spinous process; superior articulating processes are concave ovals that act as rockerlike cradles for condyles of occipital bone; named atlas because it supports the head as Atlas supported the world in Greek mythology
Axis (epistropheus) 2nd cervical vertebra, so named because the atlas rotates about this bone in rotating movements of the head; the dens, or odontoid process, is a peglike projection extending upward from the body of the axis that forms a pivot for rotation of the atlas
Thoracic vertebrae 12 pairs of ribs attached to vertebrae; stronger, w/ more massive bodies than cervical vertebrae; no transverse foramina; 2 sets facets for artiulations w/ the corresponding rib; 1 on body, 2nd on transverse process; upper T have long spinous process
Lumbar vertebrae Strong, massive; superior articulating processes directed medially instead of upward; inferior articulating processes, laterally instead of downward; short, blunt spinous processes
Sacrum Five separate vertebrae until about 25 years of age; then fused to form one wedge-shaped bone
Sacral promontory Protuberance from the anterior, upper border of the sacrum into the pelvis; of obstetrical importance because its size limits the anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic inlet
Coccyx four or five separate vertebrae in a child but fused into one as an adult
Curves Cruves have great structural importance. They increase carrying strength of vertebral column, make balance possible in upright position (if straight, wt of viscera pull body forward), absorb jolts from walking, & protect column fr fracture
Primary curves (Thoracic curve & Sacral curve) Column curves at birth from the head to the sacrum with the convexity posteriorly; after the child stands, the convexity persists only in the thoracic and sacral regions, which are therefore called primary curves
Secondary curves (Cervical curve & Lumbar curve) Concavities in the cervical and lumbar regions; the cervical concavity results from the infant's attempts to hod the head erect (2-4 months); the lumbar concavity, from balancing efforts in learning to walk (10-18months)
Sternum Breastbone; flat dagger-shaped bone; the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae together form a bony cage known as the thorax
Body (re: sternum) Main central part of bone
Manubrium (re: sternum) Flaring upper part
Xiphoid process (re: sternum) Projection of cartilage at the lower border of the bone
True ribs Upper seven pairs; fasten to the sternum by costal cartilages
False ribs These ribs do not attach to the sternum directly; the upper three pairs of false ribs attach by means of the costal cartilage of the seventh ribs
Floating ribs The last two pairs of false ribs that do not attach to the sternum at all
Head (re: ribs) projection at the posterior end of a rib; articulates with the corresponding thoracic vertebrae & one above, except the last three pairs, which join the corresponding vertebrae only
Neck (re: ribs) Constricted portion just below the head
Tubercle (re: ribs) Small knob just below the neck; articulates with the transverse process of the corresponding thoracic vertebra; missing in the lowest three ribs
Body or shaft (re: ribs) Main part of a rib
Costal cartilage (re: ribs) Cartilage at the sternal end of true ribs; attaches ribs (except floating ribs) to the sternum
Created by: Jgiron6994



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