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NWCC Histo 1 OTT

Exam 2 Review

1. Connective tissue is made up of Cells + Matrix
2. Matrix consists of Fibers and Ground Substance
3. Most common cell in CT is Fibroblasts found in the matrix
4. Ground substance is the diffusion medium of CT and is made up of A sugary substance -> GAGs and PGs (glycosominoglycones and protoglycans)
5. Ground substance has a very high affinity for Water
6. The more sulfated GAGs in the ground substance the more… Rigid the tissue becomes -> SO4 hangs onto water tightly and water provides the diffusion medium
7. Ground substance does 3 things, what are they Bind O2 Provide rigidity Immunological barrier
8. The most common fiber in CT is Collagen
9.Type I is Most common type collagen fiber in the body found in Skin Dermis Tendon Bone Ligament Fascia Fibrous cartilage Cornea Loose fibrous tissue
10. Type II is Hylaline and elastic cartilage Vertebral discs
11. Type III Reticular fiber -> (all characteristics of collagen but more branching and thinner) Blood vessels Parenchymal organs Bone marrow Lymphoid tissue Smooth muscle Nerves Lung Fetal skin
12. Type IV is Non-fibrous collagen of the basal lamina Basement membranes External lamina
13. Name is majority cell in cartilage Chondroblasts -> active Chondrocyte -> inactive
14.Name majority cell in bone Osteoblasts -> active in making Osteoclasts -> breakdown bone
15. Name majority cell in adipose Adipocytes -> mature Lipoblasts -> not mature/undifferentiated
16.Dense irregular CT can be found in Fascia and dermis
17.Dense regular CT can be found in Aponeuroses, tendons, and ligaments
18. Starting below the basement membrane of the epidermis, what 2 layers will you find After the basement membrane you find: Dermis -> Loose CT and dense CT Subcutaneous layer ------------------------(below you will find) Superficial fascia Muscle Deep fascia
19. Name 3 parts of the integument and define tissue type Epidermis-epith'l tissue type • made up of 6 layers, • keratinized, • avascular • exhibits tight junctions Dermis-made up of loose and dense irr. CT Subcutaneous-adipose • shock absorbing • energy storage • insulating(vasculature)
20a. This structures is made up of: a)dense regular b) dense irregular c)both d)neither 1.Tendons answer a)dense regular CT
20b. This structures is made up of: a)dense regular b) dense irregular c)both d)neither 2. Deep Fascia answer b)dense irregular CT
20c. This structures is made up of: a)dense regular b) dense irregular c)both d)neither 3.Perimyseum answer b)dense irregular CT
20d. This structures is made up of: a)dense regular b) dense irregular c)both d)neither 4. Endomyseum answer d)neither
20e. This structures is made up of: a)dense regular b) dense irregular c)both d)neither 5.Ligament answer a)dense regular CT
21.Adipose tissue is made up of Triacylglycerols(TAG)->Neutral fat->Saturated Fat<-Triglyceride
22. function of the CT is to 1. Energy Storage 2. Calcium Storage 3. Immunological Barrier
23. What are the two hormones that activate Ca^2+ storage? Calcitonin -> decreases blood Calcium by increasing activity of osteoblasts in the presence of Vitamin D Parathyroid -> increases blood calcium levels by increasing activity of osteoCLASTS
24. What type of tissue comes from Mesenchyme? All CT All Myocardium Smooth muscle Endothelium Mesothelium Synovial bursas blood
25. Does mesenchyme have leptochromatic or pacychromatic nucleus? Leptochromatic nucleus
26. Is blood a CT? YES! Blood (hematopoietic stems)= cells + matrix(plasma) Cells: RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets Matrix(plasma): Ground substance(serum)+Fibers(Clotting factor)
27. Most common CT is Loose CT-> 50/50 cells to matrix ratio
28. Does loose CT contain blood vessels? YES! VERY VASCULAR
29. The majority cell in loose CT is the Fibroblasts
30. Where do fibroblasts come from? (what type of cell) mesenchyme
31. Can fibroblasts make a whole collagen molecule? No. They synthesize the components of all parts of the matrix, but do not make the whole collagen fiber
32. What is the other cell readily found in loose CT that we talked about in class? Marcophage
33. Where do macrophages come from (what type of cell)? Mesenchyme->start as hematopoietic stem cells->to monocytes->to macrophage
34. What are some primary functions of macrophages? 1.phagocytosis 2.recycling of iron from hemoglobin catabolism 3. interferons 4. interleukins 5. clotting factor
35. Do macrophages originate in loose CT? No, they are immigrant phagocytic cells in the CT
36. Once macrophages differentiate in the tissue can they go back into the blood? NO! But if cells don’t differentiate, then yes they can
37. How long to macrophages last in the tissue? Years
38. How long to macrophages last in the blood? 4 days or so
39. What two types of lymphocytes can be found in the loose CT? B and T lymphocytes
40. What is a lymphocyte? A type of white blood cell
41. What type of nucleus to lymphocytes contain? pachychromatic
42. Can you tell the difference between B and T in a light microscope? No
43. What is a plasma cell? Activated B-lymphocyte
44. What activates the B-lymphocyte? Macrophages and T-lymphocytes
45. What organelles are in abundance in a plasma cell? Lots of rough ER Secretory granules-> • contain antibodies/immunoglobulins (IgG)
46. Where can you find mast cells? found in loose CT, in the blood
47. What do mast cells produce? Histamine, heparine, and other chemical mediators of INFLAMMATION!
48. What are mast cells called in the blood? Basophils (a type of WBC)
49. Name the two mechanisms of degranulation in mast cells 1. produce antibodies->presumes pathogen present (requires Ca++ to convert to arachodonic acid->how you release histamine to get inflammatory response) 2. neurogenic inflammation->most common
50a. Check your understanding… a. Calcitonin b. Parathyroid c. Both d. Neither 1. produced in the thyroid gland answer a) Calcitonin
50b. Check your understanding… a. Calcitonin b. Parathyroid c. Both d. Neither 2. increases blood Ca answer b) Parathyroid
50c. Check your understanding… a. Calcitonin b. Parathyroid c. Both d. Neither 3. regulate blood Ca levels answer c) Both Calcitonin and Parathyroid
50d. Check your understanding… a. Calcitonin b. Parathyroid c. Both d. Neither 4. Osteoblasts activated answer a) Calcitonin
50e. Check your understanding… a. Calcitonin b. Parathyroid c. Both d. Neither 5. Vitamin D dependent answer b) Parathyroid
50f. Check your understanding… a. Calcitonin b. Parathyroid c. Both d. Neither 6. produced by an endocrine gland answer c) Both Calcitonin and Parathyroid
51. Which mechanism is more prominent? Neurogenic inflammation mechanism
52. How does neurogenic inflammation work? Irritator->nociceptor (c-fiber)->substance P-> inflammatory response
53. What does Substance P release? Arachadonic acid and heparin (fast response!)
54. Dense irregular CT is made up of Collagen fibers and fibroblasts
55. Does Dense Irregular CT have more vasculature compared to loose CT? NO! It has less vasculature
56. Name four examples of dense irregular CT Fascia epimysium deep/superficial fascia perimysium
57. Dense irregular tissue has the most cells out of the CT proper group. T/F F! It has the least amount of cells and almost no vasculature compared to loose and dense irregular CT
58.What is cross-fiber friction? How you loosen muscle fibers if too tight
59. How long does it take to make a collagen fiber? 72 hrs
60. Plasma comprises what % of the blood 55%
61. Out of the 55% percent blood that is plasma, how much of the plasma is water? 90% of plasma is water
62. What is the most common plasma protein? Albumin
63. Where is albumin produced? Liver
64. What does albumin do? Maintains colloid osmotic pressure Binds and transports fatty acids from adipose cells Binds are transports unconjugated bilirubin to liver Important free radical scavenger Anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects
65. What are the three globulin groups in the plasma? Alpha, beta and gamma
66. alpha and beta globulins function as Transport molecules, clotting factors and inactive precursor molecules. Produced by the liver.
67. What is another name for gamma globulins? Immunoglobulins which make up the circulating antibodies
68. What are the two main types of alpha globulins? Alpha-1 and alpha-2
69. alpha-1 fraction includes Antitrypsin and thyroxin binding globulin
70. alpha-2 consists of several substances. What substance helps carry heme or hemoglobin to cells where they can be broken down haptoglobin
71. .alpha-2 also has a substance that carries what vitamin to the liver Vitamin D
72. Two other substances (aside from the substance that carries vitamin D to the liver) alpha-2 contains are HDL cholesterol->to liver for excretion by gallbladder Angiotensinogen->activated in the kidney to regulate Na+ reuptake
73. Beta-globulin contain what three substances? Transferrin->transports iron to bone marrow and liver Plasminogen->dissolution of clots LDL cholesterol
74. Gamma-globulins circulate what? Antibodies (IgG’s made by the activated plasma cells)
75. ELECTROLYTES: Ca++’s primary function is Muscle contraction, action potential transmission, ion channel regulation, bone and teeth structure, activating of oocytes, blood clotting…
76. ELECTROLYTES: Na+ functions include Maintenance of blood volume, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity. Balance is maintained in the kidney
77. ELECTROLYTES: K+ Creation of resting potential, sodium-potassium pump, muscle contraction, heart contraction. Hypokalemia is disease of decreased amounts of K+
78. ELECTROLYTES: What disease is characterized be decreased amounts of K+? Hypokalemia
79. ELECTROLYTES: Mg++ Nucleic acid synthesis, cofactor for many enzymes, ATP synthesis and usage, DNA and RNA synthesis
80. ELECTROLYTES: Cl- Chloride-bicarbonate exchanger participates importantly in the ability of plasma to increase its capacity for CO2. Also most important inhibitory nerutransmitters in the CNS (GABA and glycine) rely on Cl-
81. ELECTROLYTES: inhibitory nerutransmitters in the CNS (GABA and glycine) rely on what electrolyte? Cl-
82. ELECTROLYTES: HCO3- Represents amount of solube CO2 in the blood. Produced by carbonic anydrases in the RBC->buffer
83. Normal fasting plasma levels of glucose should be 100mg/dl
84. Erythrocytes are RBCs
85. In adults Erythrocytes are derived from red bone marrow in what structures? Vertebrae, pelvis, ribs, and sternum
86. Name the three types of anemia Blood loss anemia Hemolytic anemia->genetic, sickle cell Deficiency Anemia->folic acid and B12 deficiency
87. Leukocytes (WBC’s) make up what % of the blood 1-2%
88. When you think of neutrophils you should be thinking of what? Bacterial infection debris
89. When you think of allergic response and parasitical infections you think of what type of cell? Eosinophils
90. When you think of the sister to a Mast Cell you think of what? Basophil
91. The substance in the granules include: Histamine, heparin, slowing reacting substance of anaphylaxis, eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis
92. Basophils are mediated by Interleukin-3
93. What two cells degranulate when the IgE antibodies bound to their surface are bridged with an antigen? Basophils and Mast cells
94. Monocytes and lymphocytes are considered what type of cell? Agranulocytes
95. Monocytes are the precursor cells to what Macrophages
96. Where doesmonocyte activity primarily takes place? In the tissues
97. differentiated monocytes into macrophages are activated by what Interferon-gamma->marcrophages then phagocytose antigens and present them to B-lymphocytes
98. Lymphocytes are a part of the Adaptive immune system
99. What are the two types of lymphocytes? B and T
100. T cells mature in what gland Thymus
101. Where do B and T lymphocytes reside? Lymph nodes and spleen
102. MALT and GALT are Places where lymphocytes are housed in the mucosa of the oropharynx (MALT) and the gut (GALT)
103. Lymphocytes are a part of what type of immune response Adaptive immune system
104. Basic function of T lymphocytes are Helper –T cells that produces interleukins
105. Name the natural killer cells Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and macrophages.
106. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and macrophages, these cells are a part of what type of immune response Innate immune system
107. Platelets are derived from what type of cell Megakaryocytes
108. Normal number of platelets in the blood is 150-400,000/microliter
109. Too many platelets = Thrombosis
110. Too little platelets = Thrombocytopenia
111. Size of circulating cells from largest to smallest Monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, platelets
112. From most numerous to least numerous Erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
113. A mature RBC is shaped like a Biconcave disc approx 7.5 micro.m
114. mm^3 = microL is the units for describing Hematocrit->normal % RBC =42-43%
115. How many RBCs would you find in a normal hematorcit value? 4-6 million
116. Normal hemoglobin for a male? Female? Male= 14-16 mg/dl Female= 12-14 mg/dl
117. The formation of RBCs in the bone marrow consists of 5 main steps. What are they? 1 Mesenchyme-embryonic cells 2 hematopoietic stem cells-adult 3 Pronormalblasts-caused by erythropoietin from kidney after 7 days 4 erythroblasts formation 5 erythroblast becomes reticulocyte for ~ 1day after entering BV-reticulocyte = still has nuc
118. What % of your blood volume do you make in one day 1% of total blood volume
119. What is the primary job of a RBC? Carry Oxygen
120. How long do RBCs circulate in the blood for Approx 120 days
121. Do RBCs carry CO2? NOPE co2 quicky becomes HCO3->mediaded by carbonic anhydrase
122. What type of granulocyte has a segmented nucleus? Neutrophils
123. Neutrophil cells are the most common granulocyte and make up about what % of the total WBC 50-70%
124. What is the total WBC in normal circulating blood? 4-11,000/mL
125. What cells produce antibodies? Plasma cells (which are activated B cells)
Created by: otillery

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